Aircastle Limited
Aircastle LTD (Form: 424B5, Received: 03/06/2017 07:15:12)
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Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-203910

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are neither offers to sell nor solicitations of offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale thereof is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 6, 2017

 

Prospectus Supplement to Prospectus dated May 6, 2015

 

$500,000,000

 

 

LOGO

 

Aircastle Limited

 

    % Senior Notes due 2024

 

 

 

We are offering $500 million aggregate principal amount of     % Senior Notes due 2024 (the “notes”). The notes will bear interest at a rate of     % per annum. The notes will mature on                 , 2024. Interest will accrue on the notes from March     , 2017. Interest on the notes is payable on                  and                  of each year, commencing on                 , 2017.

 

We may redeem some or all of the notes at any time prior to                 , 2024 (three months prior to maturity) by paying a specified “make-whole” premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date, as described in this prospectus supplement. On and after                 , 2024 (three months prior to maturity), we may redeem some or all of the notes at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date. In addition, prior to                 , 2020, we may redeem up to 40% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes with the net proceeds of certain equity offerings at the redemption price set forth in this prospectus supplement, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date. See “Description of the Notes—Optional Redemption. If we experience a change of control triggering event as described in this prospectus supplement under “Description of the Notes—Repurchase at the Option of the Holders—Change of Control,” holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase the notes under the terms set forth herein, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase.

 

The notes will be our unsecured senior obligations, will rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior debt (including our existing senior notes) and will rank senior in right of payment to all of our future subordinated debt. The notes will be effectively junior in right of payment to all of our existing and future secured debt to the extent of the assets securing such debt, and structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes. The notes will not initially be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries or any third party.

 

Investing in the notes involves risks. See “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-14 of this prospectus supplement and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus and those risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda, the Bermuda Monetary Authority, nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

     Per Note     Total  

Public offering price(1)

                $                   

Underwriting discount

                $  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

                $  

 

(1)   Plus accrued interest, if any, from                 , 2017 if settlement occurs after that date.

 

The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.

 

 

 

We expect that delivery of the notes will be made to investors in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) on or about                 , 2017.

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

Citigroup   BNP PARIBAS       Credit Agricole CIB   Deutsche Bank Securities
Goldman, Sachs & Co.   J.P. Morgan   MUFG           RBC Capital Markets

 

Prospectus Supplement dated March     , 2017


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This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a “shelf” registration statement that we filed with the SEC. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in the accompanying prospectus at our discretion in one or more offerings. You should read (i) this prospectus supplement, (ii) the accompanying prospectus, (iii) any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you and (iv) the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein that are described in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Consent under the Exchange Control Act of 1972 (and its related regulations) has been granted by the Bermuda Monetary Authority for the issue and transfer of securities of Bermuda companies (other than certain equity securities) to and between non-residents of Bermuda for exchange control purposes, which includes the notes. Neither the Bermuda Monetary Authority nor the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda accepts any responsibility for our financial soundness or the correctness of any of the statements made or opinions expressed in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we prepare or authorize, contain and incorporate by reference information that you should consider when making your investment decision. Neither we nor the underwriters nor their affiliates and agents have authorized any person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. Neither we nor the underwriters nor their affiliates and agents are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference in either is accurate only as of the stated date of each document in which the information is contained. After the stated date, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus summarize certain documents and other information to which we refer you for a more complete understanding of what we discuss in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In making an investment decision, you should rely on your own examination of our company and the terms of this offering and the notes, including the merits and risks involved.

 

Neither we nor the underwriters nor their affiliates and agents are making any representation to any purchaser of the notes regarding the legality of the purchaser’s investment in the notes. You should not consider any information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to be legal, business or tax advice. You should consult your own attorney, business advisor and tax advisor for legal, business and tax advice regarding an investment in the notes.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

Forward-Looking Statements

     S-iii  

Summary

     S-1  

Risk Factors

     S-14  

Use of Proceeds

     S-21  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     S-22  

Capitalization

     S-23  

Description of the Notes

     S-24  

Book-Entry Settlement and Clearance

     S-73  

Certain Bermuda Tax Considerations

     S-76  

Underwriting

     S-77  

Legal Matters

     S-82  

Experts

     S-82  

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-83  

 

Prospectus

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus

     ii  

Summary

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Use of Proceeds

     3  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charge

     4  

Description of Securities

     4  

Description of Share Capital

     4  

Description of Depositary Shares

     18  

Description of Debt Securities

     20  

Description of Warrants

     23  

Description of Subscription Rights

     24  

Description of Purchase Contracts and Purchase Units

     25  

Plan of Distribution

     26  

Legal Matters

     30  

Experts

     30  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     30  

Where You Can Find More Information

     31  


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

All statements included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, other than characterizations of historical fact, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Examples of forward looking-statements include, but are not necessarily limited to, statements relating to our ability to acquire, sell, lease or finance aircraft, raise capital, pay dividends, and increase revenues, earnings, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income, and the global aviation industry and aircraft leasing sector. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” “believes,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “seeks,” “estimates” and variations on these words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are based upon our historical performance and that of our subsidiaries and on our current plans, estimates and expectations and are subject to a number of factors that could lead to actual results being materially different from those described in the forward-looking statements; we can give no assurance that our expectations will be attained. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on our operations and future prospects or that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations include, but are not limited to, those risk factors that are included under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In addition, new risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict or assess the impact of every factor that may cause our actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the document in which the statements are contained. We expressly disclaim any obligation to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein, in the accompanying prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein to reflect any change in its expectations with regard thereto or change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any statement is based.

 

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SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights the information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because this is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. For a more complete understanding of this offering, we encourage you to read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the financial statements and the notes to those statements.

 

In this prospectus supplement, except as otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “Aircastle,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Aircastle Limited and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Our Company

 

We acquire, lease, and sell commercial jet aircraft to airlines throughout the world. As of December 31, 2016, we owned and managed on behalf of our joint ventures 206 aircraft leased to 71 lessees located in 36 countries. Our aircraft are managed by an experienced team based in the United States, Ireland and Singapore. Our aircraft are subject to net leases whereby the lessee is generally responsible for maintaining the aircraft and paying operational, maintenance and insurance costs, although in certain cases, we are obligated to pay a portion of specified maintenance or modification costs. As of December 31, 2016, the net book value of our flight equipment (including flight equipment held for lease and net investment in finance and sales-type leases, or “net book value”) was $6.51 billion compared to $6.07 billion as of December 31, 2015. Our revenues, net income and Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2016 were $773.0 million, $151.5 million and $768.0 million, respectively, and for the fourth quarter of 2016 were $204.7 million, $67.7 million and $220.5 million, respectively.

 

Our Industry

 

Growth in commercial air traffic is broadly correlated with world economic activity and in recent years, has been expanding at a rate of one and a half to two times that of global GDP growth. The expansion of air travel has driven a rise in the world aircraft fleet. There are currently approximately 20,000 commercial mainline passenger and freighter aircraft in operation worldwide. This fleet is expected to continue expanding at an average annual rate of three to four percent over the next 20 years. In addition, aircraft leasing companies own a significant share of the world’s commercial jet aircraft and account for approximately 41% of this fleet.

 

Notwithstanding the sector’s long-term growth, the aviation markets have been, and are expected to remain, subject to economic variability, as well as to changes in macroeconomic variables such as fuel price levels and foreign exchange rates. The aviation industry is susceptible to external shocks, such as regional conflicts and terrorist events. Mitigating these risks is the portability of the assets, allowing aircraft to be redeployed to locations where demand is higher.

 

Air traffic data for the past several years has shown strong passenger market growth. According to the International Air Transport Association, during 2016, global passenger traffic increased 6.3% compared to 2015. This strong growth was, in part, stimulated by lower air fare prices resulting from the significant drop in fuel prices. Air cargo demand, which is more sensitive to economic conditions, appears to have stabilized. During 2016, air cargo traffic increased 3.8% compared to 2015, but capacity increased 5.3%, further depressing load factors. This market continues to be hampered by oversupply arising from the rapid growth in belly cargo capacity in passenger aircraft, as well as the production of dedicated freighter aircraft.

 

Demand for air travel varies considerably by region. Emerging market economies have generally been experiencing significant increases in air traffic, driven by rising levels of per capita income. Air traffic growth in

 

 

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some regions is being driven by the proliferation of low cost carriers, which have stimulated demand through lower prices. Mature markets, such as North America and Western Europe, are likely to grow more slowly in tandem with their economies. Persian Gulf-based Emirates, Qatar Airways and Etihad Airways are also showing signs of reaching maturity, with their growth rates starting to slow. Airlines operating in areas with political instability or weakening economies, such as those in Russia, Brazil, and now Turkey, are under pressure, and their near-term outlook is more uncertain. On balance, we believe air travel will increase over time, and as a result, we expect demand for modern aircraft will continue to remain strong over the long-term.

 

Record low fuel prices and interest rates have had a substantial effect on our industry. Between 2012 and 2016, the price of oil dropped by $67 per barrel, allowing airlines to reduce ticket prices and stimulate aircraft traffic while retaining enough of this benefit to achieve record profit levels. We believe the prospect of fuel prices having shifted to a lower baseline has shifted lease pricing among different types of aircraft, generally to the detriment of newer, more fuel efficient aircraft with higher capital costs. The ongoing low interest rate environment and strong overall performance of the aircraft financing sector has attracted significant new capital, increasing competition for new investments. The downward trend in fuel prices and interest rates may, however, have ended as fuel prices started rising in 2016, and in early 2017 the price of fuel increased $19 per barrel since January 2016. Likewise, interest rates have started to rise in the United States, with Federal Reserve guidance suggesting multiple rate hikes are likely subsequent to the December 2016 increase in the Federal Funds rate.

 

Capital availability for aircraft has varied over time, and we consider this variability to be a basic characteristic of our business. If pursued properly, this represents an important source of opportunity. Both debt and equity markets have improved globally over the past several years with the recovery from the global financial crisis. Strong U.S. debt capital market conditions benefited borrowers by permitting access to financing at historic lows while higher fees have driven down export credit agency (“ECA”) demand. Recently, ECA availability has been curtailed, both in the United States and in Europe, due to political issues and an investigation into possible irregularities, respectively. Commercial bank debt continues to play a critical role for aircraft finance, although we believe regulatory pressures may ultimately limit its role.

 

While financial markets conditions are currently attractive, heightened volatility stemming from global growth concerns and various geopolitical issues may increase capital costs and limit availability going forward. We believe these market forces should generate attractive new investment and trading opportunities upon which we are well placed to capitalize given our access to different financing sources, our limited capital commitments and our reputation as a reliable trading partner. Over the longer term, our strategy is to achieve an investment grade credit rating, which we believe will reduce our borrowing costs and provide us with more reliable access to debt capital throughout the business cycle.

 

Our Business

 

We originate acquisitions and sales through well-established relationships with airlines, other aircraft lessors, financial institutions and brokers, as well as other sources. We believe that sourcing such transactions globally through multiple channels provides for a broad and relatively consistent set of opportunities.

 

Our objective is to develop and maintain a diverse and stable operating lease portfolio. We review our operating lease portfolio to sell aircraft opportunistically, to manage our portfolio diversification and to exit from aircraft investments when we believe selling will achieve better expected risk-adjusted cash flows than reinvesting in and re-leasing the aircraft.

 

We have an experienced acquisitions and sales team based in Stamford, Connecticut; Dublin, Ireland; and Singapore that maintains strong relationships with a wide variety of market participants throughout the world. We believe that our seasoned personnel and extensive industry contacts facilitate our access to acquisition and sales opportunities and that our strong operating track record facilitates our access to debt and equity capital markets.

 

 

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Potential investments and sales are evaluated by teams comprised of marketing, technical, risk management, financial and legal professionals. These teams consider a variety of aspects before we commit to purchase or sell an aircraft, including price, specification/configuration, age, condition and maintenance history, operating efficiency, lease terms, financial condition and liquidity of the lessee, jurisdiction, industry trends and future redeployment potential and values, among other factors. We believe that utilizing a cross-functional team of experts to consider investment parameters helps us assess more completely the overall risk and return profile of potential acquisitions and helps us move forward expeditiously on letters of intent and acquisition documentation.

 

Nearly all of our aircraft are contracted on operating leases. Under an operating lease, we retain the benefit, and bear the risk, of re-leasing and of the residual value of the aircraft at the end of the lease. Operating leasing can be an attractive alternative to ownership for an airline because leasing increases their fleet flexibility, requires lower capital commitments, and significantly reduces aircraft residual value risks. Under these leases, the lessee agrees to lease an aircraft for a fixed term, although certain of our operating leases allow the lessee the option to extend the lease for an additional term or, in rare cases, terminate the lease prior to its expiration. As a percentage of lease rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016, our four largest customers, Lion Air, LATAM Airlines Group, Avianca Brazil and South African Airways, accounted for 7%, 6%, 6% and 5%, respectively.

 

Each of our leases requires the lessee to pay periodic rentals during the lease term. As of December 31, 2016, rentals on more than 93% of our leases then in effect, as a percentage of net book value, are fixed and do not vary according to changes in interest rates. For the remaining leases, rentals are payable on a floating interest-rate basis. Most lease rentals are payable monthly in advance, and all lease rentals are payable in U.S. dollars.

 

Our aircraft re-leasing strategy is to develop opportunities proactively, well in advance of scheduled lease expiration, to enable consideration of a broad set of alternatives, including deployment, sale or part-out, and to allow for reconfiguration or maintenance lead times where needed. We also take a proactive approach to monitoring the credit quality of our customers, and may seek early return and redeployment of aircraft if we feel that a lessee is unlikely to perform its obligations under a lease. We have invested significant resources in developing and implementing what we consider to be state-of-the-art lease management information systems and processes to enable efficient management of aircraft in our portfolio.

 

We believe our business approach is differentiated from those of other large leasing companies. Our investment strategy is to seek out the best risk-adjusted return opportunities across the commercial jet market, so our acquisition targets and growth rates will vary with market conditions. We prefer to have capital resources available to capture investment opportunities that arise in the context of changing market circumstances. As such, we limit large, long-term capital commitments and are therefore much less reliant on orders for new aircraft from aircraft manufacturers as a source of new investments. In general, we focus on discerning investment value in situations that are often more bespoke and generally less competitive.

 

Our Strengths

 

We believe that the following competitive strengths will allow us to capitalize on future growth opportunities in the global aviation industry.

 

Diversified Portfolio of Modern Aircraft:     We have a portfolio of modern aircraft that is diversified with respect to lessees, geographic markets, lease maturities and aircraft types. As of December 31, 2016, we owned and managed on behalf of our joint ventures 206 aircraft, comprising a variety of aircraft types leased to 71 lessees located in 36 countries. As of December 31, 2016, the top ten countries in which our customers are located, ranked by percentage of our net book value, were Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia, Chile, Thailand, India, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Singapore and Germany. Lease expirations for our owned aircraft are well

 

 

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dispersed, with a weighted-average remaining lease term of 5.1 years as of December 31, 2016. This provides the company with a long-dated base of contracted revenues. We believe our focus on portfolio diversification reduces the risks associated with individual lessee defaults and adverse geopolitical or economic issues, and results in generally predictable cash flows.

 

Flexible, Disciplined Acquisition Approach and Broad Investment Sourcing Network:     We consider Aircastle to be the industry’s largest “value investor.” Our investment strategy is to seek out the best risk-adjusted return opportunities across the commercial jet market, so our acquisition targets vary with market opportunities. We source our acquisitions through well-established relationships with airlines, other aircraft lessors, manufacturers, financial institutions and other aircraft owners. Since our formation in 2004, we built our aircraft portfolio through more than 144 transactions with 84 counterparties. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we acquired 60 aircraft for an aggregate of approximately $1.6 billion, 28 of which were acquired for an aggregate of approximately $636 million during the fourth quarter of 2016.

 

Significant Experience in Successfully Selling Aircraft Throughout Their Life Cycle:     Since our formation, we sold 169 aircraft for $4.0 billion. These sales produced net gains of $231 million and involved a wide range of aircraft types and buyers. Our team is adept at managing and executing the sale of both new and used aircraft. We sold 124 aircraft that were over 14 years old at the time of sale, with many of these being sold on a part-out disposition basis, where the airframe and engines may be sold to various buyers. We believe our competence in selling older aircraft is an essential portfolio management skill and one of the capabilities that sets us apart from many of our larger competitors.

 

Strong Capital Raising Track Record and Access to a Wide Range of Financing Sources:     Aircastle is a publicly listed company, and our shares have traded on the New York Stock Exchange since 2006. Since our inception in late 2004, we raised approximately $1.7 billion in equity capital from private and public investors. Our two largest shareholders are Marubeni Corporation (“Marubeni”) and Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan (“Teachers’”) with whom we maintain strong, strategic relationships. We also obtained $12.9 billion in debt capital from a variety of sources including the unsecured bond market, commercial banks, export credit agency-backed debt, and the aircraft securitization market. The diversity and global nature of our financing sources demonstrates our ability to adapt to changing market conditions and seize new opportunities.

 

Our Capital Structure Is Long-Dated and Provides Investment Flexibility:     Our business is currently financed under debt financings with a weighted-average debt maturity of 3.7 years. We also have $810 million available from unsecured revolving credit facilities that expire in 2019 and 2020, thereby limiting our near-term financial markets exposure. Given our relatively limited future capital commitments, we have resources to take advantage of what we anticipate will be a more attractive investment environment. We also believe that our access to the unsecured bond market and our unsecured revolving lines of credit, due to our large unencumbered asset base, allow us to pursue a flexible and opportunistic investment strategy.

 

Experienced Management Team with Significant Expertise:     Each member of our management team has more than 20 years of industry experience and has expertise in the acquisition, leasing, financing, technical management, restructuring/repossession and sale of aviation assets. This experience spans several industry cycles and a wide range of business conditions and is global in nature. We believe our management team is highly qualified to manage and grow our aircraft portfolio and to address our long-term capital needs.

 

Global and Scalable Business Platform:     We operate through offices in the United States, Ireland and Singapore, using a modern asset management system designed specifically for aircraft operating lessors and capable of handling a significantly larger aircraft portfolio. We believe that our current facilities, systems and personnel are capable of supporting an increase in our revenue base and asset base without a proportional increase in overhead costs.

 

 

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Our Strategy

 

The overall financing environment has improved in recent years and aircraft owners have benefited from the low interest rate environment. Particularly strong conditions in the debt capital markets have provided select borrowers, including Aircastle, access to attractively priced, flexible financing. This provides us a competitive advantage over airlines and lessors that lack similar access. Moreover, supply of traditional asset-based financing from commercial banks remains volatile, particularly for older aircraft. Going forward, recent heightened financial markets volatility stemming from global growth and geopolitical concerns may increase capital costs and limit availability. This may enable more attractive investment opportunities for Aircastle.

 

We plan to grow our business and profits over the long-term while maintaining a countercyclical orientation, a bias towards limiting long-dated capital commitments and a conservative and flexible capital structure. Our business strategy entails the following elements.

 

Pursuing a Disciplined and Differentiated Investment Strategy.     In our view, aircraft values change in different ways over time. We carefully evaluate investments across different aircraft models, ages, lessees and acquisition sources and re-evaluate these choices as market conditions and relative investment values change. We believe the financing flexibility offered through unsecured debt and our team’s experience with a wide range of asset types enables our value oriented strategy and provides us with a competitive advantage. We view orders from equipment manufacturers to be part of our investment opportunity set, but choose to limit long term capital commitments unless we believe there is an adequate return premium to compensate for risks and opportunity costs. This approach sets us apart from most other large aircraft leasing companies.

 

Originating Investments from Many Different Sources Across the Globe.     Our strategy is to seek out worthwhile investments by leveraging our team’s wide range of contacts around the world. We utilize a multi-channel approach to sourcing acquisitions and have purchased aircraft from a large number of airlines, lessors, original equipment manufacturers, lenders and other aircraft owners.

 

Leveraging Our Strategic Relationships.     We intend to capture the benefits provided through the extensive global contacts and relationships maintained by Marubeni, which is our biggest shareholder and one of the largest Japanese trading companies. Marubeni has already enabled greater access to Japanese-based financing and helped source and develop our new joint venture (“IBJ Air”) with the leasing arm of the Industrial Bank of Japan, Limited. Our Lancaster joint venture with Teachers’ provides us with an opportunity to pursue larger transactions, manage portfolio concentrations and improve our return on deployed capital. IBJ Air is targeted at newer narrow-body aircraft leased to premier airlines, providing Aircastle with increased access to this market sector and to these customers.

 

Maintaining Efficient Access to Capital from a Wide Set of Sources While Targeting an Investment Grade Credit Rating.     We believe the aircraft investment market is influenced by the business cycle. Our strategy is to increase our purchase activity when prices are low and to emphasize asset sales when competition for assets is high. To implement this approach, we believe it is important to maintain access to a wide variety of financing sources. Our strategy is to improve our corporate credit ratings to an investment grade level by maintaining strong portfolio and capital structure metrics while achieving a critical size through accretive growth. We believe improving our credit rating will not only reduce our borrowing costs but also facilitate more reliable access to both secured and unsecured debt capital throughout the business cycle.

 

Selling Assets When Attractive Opportunities Arise and for Portfolio Management Purposes.     We sell assets with the aim of realizing profits and reinvesting proceeds when more accretive investments are available. We also use asset sales for portfolio management purposes, such as reducing lessee specific concentrations and lowering residual value exposures to certain aircraft types, and as an exit from investments when a sale generates the greatest expected cash flow.

 

 

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Capturing the Value of Our Efficient Operating Platform and Strong Operating Track Record.     We believe our team’s capabilities in the global aircraft leasing market place us in a favorable position to source and manage new income-generating activities. We intend to continue to focus our efforts in areas where we believe we have competitive advantages, including new direct investments as well as ventures with strategic business partners.

 

Intending to Pay Quarterly Dividends to Our Shareholders Based on the Company’s Sustainable Earnings Levels.     Aircastle has paid dividends each quarter since our initial public offering in 2006. On February 9, 2017, our Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly dividend of $0.26 per common share, or an aggregate of $20.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, payable on March 15, 2017 to holders of record on February 28, 2017. These dividend amounts may not be indicative of any future dividends.

 

Company Information

 

We are a Bermuda exempted company and were incorporated on October 29, 2004. Our principal executive offices are located at c/o Aircastle Advisor LLC, 300 First Stamford Place, 5th Floor, Stamford, CT 06902. Our telephone number is (203) 504-1020. Our website address is www.aircastle.com. Information on, or accessible through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, other than documents that we file with the SEC that are expressly incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

For a further discussion of our business, we urge you to read the documents incorporated by reference herein, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

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The Offering

 

The summary below describes the principal terms of the notes. Certain of the terms and conditions described below are subject to important limitations and exceptions. The following is not intended to be complete. You should carefully review the “Description of the Notes” section of this prospectus supplement, which contains a more detailed description of the terms and conditions of the notes.

 

Issuer

Aircastle Limited, a Bermuda exempted company (the “Issuer”).

 

Notes Offered

$500 million aggregate principal amount of     % Senior Notes due 2024 (the “notes”).

 

Maturity

                , 2024.

 

Interest Payment Dates

                 and                 , commencing on                 , 2017. Interest will accrue from , 2017.

 

Ranking

The notes will be our general unsecured senior indebtedness and will:

 

   

rank senior in right of payment to any of our future subordinated indebtedness and other obligations that are, by their terms, expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes;

 

   

rank equally in right of payment to all of our existing and future indebtedness and other obligations that are not, by their terms, expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes, including our previously issued $500 million aggregate principal amount of 6.75% senior notes due 2017, $400 million aggregate principal amount of 4.625% senior notes due 2018, $500 million aggregate principal amount of 6.25% senior notes due 2019, $300 million aggregate principal amount of 7.625% senior notes due 2020, $500 million aggregate principal amount of 5.125% senior notes due 2021, $500 million aggregate principal amount of 5.50% senior notes due 2022 and $500 million aggregate principal amount of 5.00% senior notes due 2023 (collectively, the “existing notes”);

 

   

be effectively junior in right of payment to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness and other obligations to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness and other obligations;

 

   

be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes; and

 

   

not be initially guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries or any third party.

 

 

As of December 31, 2016, after giving effect to the issuance and sale of the notes and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, the aggregate carrying value of our and our subsidiaries’ indebtedness was approximately $5.0 billion, including $3.8 billion of our indebtedness (none of which is secured) and $1.2 billion of indebtedness at our subsidiaries (all of which is secured). As of December 31, 2016, we also had $810 million of borrowings available under our revolving

 

 

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credit facilities. As of December 31, 2016, our subsidiaries had approximately $1.2 billion of outstanding indebtedness and other obligations (excluding intercompany liabilities). In addition, none of our outstanding indebtedness is subordinated.

 

Optional Redemption

Prior to                 , 2024 (three months prior to maturity), we may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at any time at the “make whole” redemption price, as described in “Description of the Notes—Optional Redemption,” plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the applicable redemption date.

 

  On and after                 , 2024 (three months prior to maturity), we may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the applicable redemption date.

 

  Prior to                 , 2020, we may redeem up to 40% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes using the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at the applicable redemption price specified for the notes in “Description of the Notes—Optional Redemption,” plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the applicable redemption date.

 

Change of Control

Upon a Change of Control (as defined herein), we will be required to make an offer to purchase each holder’s notes at a price of 101% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase. See “Description of the Notes—Repurchase at the Option of the Holders—Change of Control.” If the notes have an investment grade rating from any two of Fitch, Inc., Moody’s Investor Service, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group at the time of the applicable Change of Control, we will only be required to offer to repurchase the notes if, in addition to a Change of Control, there is a Rating Decline, as defined in “Description of the Notes—Certain Definitions.”

 

Certain Covenants

The indenture governing the notes will contain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability and the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to:

 

   

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness and issue disqualified stock or preference shares;

 

   

sell assets;

 

   

incur liens;

 

   

pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or make other restricted payments;

 

   

agree to any restrictions on the ability of restricted subsidiaries to transfer property or make payments to us;

 

   

make certain investments;

 

   

guarantee other indebtedness without guaranteeing the notes offered hereby;

 

 

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consolidate, amalgamate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and

 

   

enter into transactions with our affiliates.

 

  These limitations will be subject to a number of important qualifications and exceptions. The liens covenant only applies to us and our subsidiaries that guarantee the notes, and the notes will initially not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries. Many of these covenants will cease to apply to the notes during the period the notes are rated investment grade by any two of Fitch Inc., Moody’s Investor Service, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group.

 

  See “Description of the Notes—Certain Covenants.”

 

No Prior Market

The notes will be new securities for which there is no market. Although the underwriters have informed us that they intend to make a market in the notes, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market-making at any time without notice. Accordingly, a liquid market for the notes may not develop or be maintained.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from the issuance and sale of the notes for general corporate purposes, which may include the acquisition of aircraft or the refinancing of our existing indebtedness. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the information set forth herein under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-14 and in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in deciding whether to purchase the notes.

 

 

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Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data

 

Our summary historical consolidated financial and operating data set forth below as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein. Our summary historical consolidated financial and operating data set forth below as of December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included or incorporated by reference herein. You should also read our historical financial statements and related notes in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, as well as the section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” all of which are incorporated by reference herein.

 

    Year Ended December 31,  
    2016     2015     2014     2013     2012  
    (in thousands, except per share amounts and other data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operation:

         

Total revenues

  $ 772,958     $ 819,202     $ 818,602     $ 708,645     $ 686,572  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    61,872       56,198       55,773       53,436       48,370  

Depreciation

    305,216       318,783       299,365       284,924       269,920  

Interest, net

    255,660       243,577       238,378       243,757       222,808  

Net income

    151,453       121,729       100,828       29,781       32,868  

Earnings per common share—Basic: Net income

  $ 1.92     $ 1.50     $ 1.25     $ 0.40     $ 0.46  

Earnings per common share—Diluted: Net income

  $ 1.92     $ 1.50     $ 1.25     $ 0.40     $ 0.46  

Cash dividends declared per share

  $ 0.98     $ 0.90     $ 0.82     $ 0.695     $ 0.615  

Other Operating Data:

         

EBITDA(1)(3)

  $ 734,989     $ 707,524     $ 658,606     $ 600,088     $ 546,285  

Adjusted EBITDA(1)(3)

    767,953       832,105       792,283       717,209       647,622  

Adjusted net income(2)(3)

    168,527       142,271       167,642       59,260       57,009  

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows:

         

Cash flows provided by operations

  $ 468,092     $ 526,285     $ 458,786     $ 424,037     $ 427,277  

Cash flows used in investing activities

    (646,155     (864,662     (861,602     (682,933     (741,909

Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities

    477,738       324,625       (82,141     295,292       637,327  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data (end of period):

         

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 455,579     $ 155,904     $ 169,656     $ 654,613     $ 618,217  

Flight equipment held for lease, net of accumulated depreciation

    6,247,585       5,867,062       5,579,718       5,044,410       4,662,661  

Net investment in finance leases

    260,853       201,211       106,651       145,173       119,951  

Total assets

    7,244,665       6,569,964       6,175,146       6,199,429       5,757,073  

Borrowings under senior notes, securitizations and term debt financings

    4,506,245       4,041,156       3,744,587       3,684,897       3,543,589  

Shareholders’ equity

    1,834,314       1,779,500       1,720,335       1,645,407       1,415,626  

Other Data:

         

Number of Aircraft owned and managed on behalf of our joint ventures (at the end of period)

    206       167       152       162       159  

Total debt to total capitalization

    71.1     69.4     68.5     69.1     71.5

 

(1)  

EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are measures of operating performance that are not calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”). EBITDA and Adjusted

 

 

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EBITDA should not be considered as substitutes for net income (loss), income (loss) from operations or cash flows provided by or used in operations, as determined in accordance with US GAAP. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are key measures of our operating performance used by management to focus on consolidated operating performance exclusive of income and expense that relate to the financing and capitalization of the business.

 

We define EBITDA as income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes, interest expense, and depreciation and amortization. We use EBITDA to assess our consolidated financial and operating performance, and we believe this non-GAAP measure is helpful in identifying trends in our performance. This measure provides an assessment of controllable expenses and affords management the ability to make decisions which are expected to facilitate meeting current financial goals as well as achieving optimal financial performance. It provides an indicator for management to determine if adjustments to current spending decisions are needed. EBITDA provides us with a measure of operating performance because it assists us in comparing our operating performance on a consistent basis as it removes the impact of our capital structure (primarily interest charges on our outstanding debt) and asset base (primarily depreciation and amortization) from our operating results. Accordingly, this metric measures our financial performance based on operational factors that management can impact in the short-term, namely the cost structure, or expenses, of the organization. EBITDA is one of the metrics used by senior management and the Board of Directors to review the consolidated financial performance of our business.

 

We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA (as defined above) further adjusted to give effect to adjustments required in calculating covenant ratios and compliance under the indenture governing our senior unsecured notes. Adjusted EBITDA is a material component of these covenants.

 

The table below shows the reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2016     2015     2014     2013     2012  
     (in thousands)  

Net income

   $ 151,453     $ 121,729     $ 100,828     $ 29,781     $ 32,868  

Depreciation

     305,216       318,783       299,365       284,924       269,920  

Amortization of net lease premiums (discounts) and lease incentives

     10,353       10,664       6,172       32,411       12,844  

Interest, net

     255,660       243,577       238,378       243,757       222,808  

Income tax provision

     12,307       12,771       13,863       9,215       7,845  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

   $ 734,989     $ 707,524     $ 658,606     $ 600,088     $ 546,285  

Impairment of aircraft

     28,585       119,835       93,993       117,306       96,454  

Non-cash share based payment expense

     7,901       5,537       4,244       4,569       4,232  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

     —         —         36,570       —         —    

Loss (gain) on mark to market of interest rate derivative contracts

     (3,522     (791     (1,130     (4,754     (597

Contract termination expense

       —         —         —         1,248  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ 767,953     $ 832,105     $ 792,283     $ 717,209     $ 647,622  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(2)   Management believes that Adjusted Net Income (“ANI”) when viewed in conjunction with our results under U.S. GAAP and the below reconciliation, provides useful information about operating and period-over-period performance, and provides additional information that is useful for evaluating the underlying operating performance of our business without regard to periodic reporting elements related to interest rate derivative accounting and gains or losses related to flight equipment and debt investments.

 

 

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The table below shows the reconciliation of net income to ANI for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2016     2015     2014     2013     2012  
     (in thousands)  

Net income

   $ 151,453     $ 121,729     $ 100,828     $ 29,781     $ 32,868  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

     —         —         36,570       —         —    

Ineffective portion and termination of cash flow hedges(a)

     —         455       660       2,393       2,893  

Mark to market of interest rate derivative contracts(b)

     (3,522     (791     (1,130     (4,754     (597

Loan termination payment(a)

     4,960       —         —         2,954       —    

Write-off of deferred financing fees(a)

     2,880       —         —         3,975       3,034  

Stock compensation expense(c)

     7,901       5,537       4,244       4,569       4,232  

Term Financing No. 1 hedge loss amortization charges(a)

     —         4,401       14,854       17,843       13,331  

Securitization No. 1 hedge loss amortization charges(a)

     4,855       10,940       11,616       2,499       —    

Contract termination expense

     —         —           —         1,248  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted net income(d)

   $ 168,527     $ 142,271     $ 167,642     $ 59,260     $ 57,009  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(a)   Included in Interest, net.
(b)   Included in Other income (expense).
(c)   Included in Selling, general and administrative expenses.
(d)   An investor or potential investor may find EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI important measures in evaluating our performance, results of operations and financial position. We use these non-U.S. GAAP measures to supplement our U.S. GAAP results in order to provide a more complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business.

 

EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI have limitations as analytical tools and should not be viewed in isolation or as substitutes for U.S. GAAP measures of earnings. Material limitations in making the adjustments to our earnings to calculate EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI, and using these non-U.S. GAAP measures as compared to U.S. GAAP net income, income from continuing operations and cash flows provided by or used in operations, include:

 

   

depreciation and amortization, though not directly affecting our current cash position, represent the wear and tear and/or reduction in value of our aircraft, which affects the aircraft’s availability for use and may be indicative of future needs for capital expenditures;

 

   

the cash portion of income tax (benefit) provision generally represents charges (gains), which may significantly affect our financial results;

 

   

elements of our interest rate derivative accounting may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of our hedging policy;

 

   

loss on the extinguishment of debt related to our 9.75% Senior Notes due 2018;

 

   

hedge loss amortization charges related to Term Financing No. 1 and Securitization No. 1; and

 

   

adjustments required in calculating covenant ratios and compliance as that term is defined in the indentures governing our senior unsecured notes.

 

 

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EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI are not alternatives to net income, income from operations or cash flows provided by or used in operations as calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. You should not rely on these non-U.S. GAAP measures as a substitute for any such U.S. GAAP financial measure. We strongly urge you to review the reconciliations to U.S. GAAP net income, along with our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement. We also strongly urge you to not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business. In addition, because EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI are not measures of financial performance under U.S. GAAP and are susceptible to varying calculations, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and ANI as presented in this prospectus supplement, may differ from and may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

In addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the matters addressed under “Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the following risks before investing in the notes. You should also read the risk factors and other cautionary statements, including those described under the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 and our Current Reports on Form 8-K, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

We are subject to certain risks and hazards due to the nature of the business activities we conduct. The risks discussed below and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects, are not the only risks we face. We may experience additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or, as a result of developments occurring in the future, conditions that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects.

 

Risks Relating to the Notes

 

Our substantial debt could adversely affect our cash flow and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our existing indebtedness and the notes.

 

On an adjusted basis, after giving effect to the issuance and sale of the notes and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, we would have had approximately $5.0 billion of consolidated debt as of December 31, 2016. We also have the ability to borrow additional funds under our revolving credit facilities. See “Capitalization.”

 

Our substantial amount of debt could have important consequences to you. For example, it could:

 

   

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under the notes or other outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

   

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest and principal payments on our debt, thereby limiting the availability of our cash flow to fund future capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate requirements;

 

   

limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate;

 

   

restrict us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures; place us at a competitive disadvantage compared with competitors that have less debt; and

 

   

limit our ability to borrow additional funds, even when necessary to maintain adequate liquidity.

 

Further, a substantial portion of our debt, including borrowings under our securitizations and certain of our term financing facilities, bear interest at variable rates. The interest expense we incur will vary with changes in the applicable market interest rate. In December 2015, the U.S. Federal Reserve raised short-term interest rates from zero to 50 basis points, and announced that it would continue to gradually raise short-term interest rates over the next three years. In December 2016, the U.S. Federal Reserve raised short-term interest rates from 50 to 75 basis points. As a result, to the extent we are not sufficiently hedged, changes in interest rates may increase our interest costs and may reduce the spread between the returns on our portfolio investments and the cost of our borrowings. In addition to our debt, we have significant contractual obligations, as discussed in the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference herein.

 

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Despite our substantial debt, we or our subsidiaries may still be able to incur significantly more debt, which could exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial debt.

 

We or our subsidiaries may be able to incur additional debt in the future. The terms of our securitizations, term financing facilities, revolving credit facilities, the indentures governing our existing notes and the indenture governing the notes will allow us to incur substantial amounts of additional debt, including secured debt, subject to certain limitations. We also have the ability to borrow additional funds under our revolving credit facilities. See “Capitalization. We regularly consider market conditions and the ability to incur indebtedness (including secured debt at the subsidiary level), to either refinance existing indebtedness and/or for working capital, and we are currently evaluating additional financing opportunities, which may be significant and could include secured debt, that may be available to us, although we have not entered into any binding commitments to incur additional debt as of the date of this prospectus supplement. If additional debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks we could face would be magnified. Refinancing activities may also impact our results of operations.

 

To service our debt and meet our other cash needs, we will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.

 

Our ability to make payments on, or repay or refinance, our debt, including the notes, and to fund planned capital expenditures, dividends and other cash needs will depend largely upon our future operating performance. Our future performance, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In addition, our ability to borrow funds in the future to make payments on our debt will depend on the satisfaction of the covenants in our securitizations and our agreements governing our other debt, including the indenture governing the notes and the indentures governing our existing notes, and other agreements we may enter into in the future. Specifically, we will need to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy financial condition tests. Furthermore, we intend to continue to pay cash dividends to our common shareholders. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available under our term or revolving financing facilities or from other sources in an amount sufficient to pay our debt, including the notes, or to fund our dividends and other liquidity needs. In addition, our debt service obligations may be impacted by increases in interest rates.

 

If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance the notes, the existing notes or our other indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of the indenture governing the notes, the terms of the indentures governing the existing notes and other existing or future debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.

 

We are dependent upon dividends from our subsidiaries to meet our debt service obligations.

 

We are a holding company and conduct all of our operations through our subsidiaries. Our ability to meet our debt service obligations will be dependent on receipt of dividends from our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Subject to the restrictions contained in the indenture, future borrowings by our subsidiaries may contain restrictions or prohibitions on the payment of dividends by our subsidiaries to us. See “Description of the Notes—Certain Covenants.” In addition, applicable state corporate law may limit the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. We cannot assure you that the agreements governing the current and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries, applicable laws or state regulation will permit our subsidiaries to provide us with sufficient dividends, distributions or loans to fund payments on the notes when due.

 

Each of our securitization transactions provides that all cash flows available after expenses and interest are applied to debt amortization. While we receive modest servicing fees from these subsidiaries, we do not otherwise receive any excess cash flow from the aircraft financed thereunder.

 

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The provisions of our ECA and other financings require us to comply with minimum net worth tests in order to continue to have access to the cash flow generated by the aircraft subject to those financings. More specifically, our ECA term financings contain a $500 million minimum net worth covenant and also contain, among other customary provisions, a material adverse change default and cross-default to other ECA- or EXIM-supported financings or our other recourse financings. Our compliance with these tests, and with other covenants in these financings and other aircraft-specific financings, depends upon, among other things, the timely receipt of lease payments from our lessees and upon our overall financial performance.

 

The notes are not guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries. as a result, the creditors of our subsidiaries have a prior claim, ahead of the notes, on all of our subsidiaries’ assets.

 

Since none of our subsidiaries will initially guarantee the notes offered hereby, creditors of our subsidiaries have a prior claim, ahead of the holders of notes, on the assets of those subsidiaries. In addition, our subsidiaries have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to pay amounts due under the notes or to make any funds available to pay those amounts, whether by dividend, distribution, loan or other payments. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any of our subsidiaries, holders of indebtedness and trade creditors of these subsidiaries will generally be entitled to payment of their claims from the assets of such subsidiaries before any assets are made available for distribution to us. Accordingly, there may be insufficient funds to satisfy claims of noteholders. As of December 31, 2016, our subsidiaries had approximately $1.2 billion of outstanding indebtedness and other obligations (excluding intercompany liabilities). Our non-guarantor subsidiaries are not subject to the liens covenant in the indenture governing the notes.

 

We may be unable to repay or repurchase the notes at maturity.

 

At the applicable maturity, the entire outstanding principal amount of the notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest, will become due and payable. We may not have the funds to fulfill these obligations or the ability to renegotiate these obligations. If upon the applicable maturity date other arrangements prohibit us from repaying the notes, we could try to obtain waivers of such prohibitions under those arrangements, or we could attempt to refinance the borrowings that contain the restrictions. In these circumstances, if we were not able to obtain such waivers or refinance these borrowings, we would be unable to repay the notes.

 

The agreements governing our debt, including the notes and existing notes and our securitizations and term financing facilities, contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that may affect our ability to operate our business and to make payments on the notes.

 

The agreements governing our debt, including our securitizations, term financing facilities, revolving credit facilities, the indentures governing the existing notes and the indenture governing the notes, impose operating and financial restrictions on our activities. These restrictions include compliance with or maintenance of certain financial tests and ratios, including net worth covenants and the maintenance of loan to value and interest coverage ratios, and limit or prohibit our ability to, among other things:

 

   

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness and issue disqualified stock or preference shares;

 

   

sell assets;

 

   

incur liens;

 

   

pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or make other restricted payments;

 

   

agree to any restrictions on the ability of restricted subsidiaries to transfer property or make payments to us;

 

   

make certain investments;

 

   

guarantee other indebtedness without guaranteeing the notes offered hereby;

 

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consolidate, amalgamate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and

 

   

enter into transactions with our affiliates.

 

These restrictions on our ability to operate our business could seriously harm our business by, among other things, limiting our ability to take advantage of financing, amalgamation, merger and acquisition, joint venture and other corporate opportunities.

 

Various risks, uncertainties and events beyond our control could affect our ability to comply with these covenants and maintain these financial tests and ratios. Failure to comply with any of the covenants in our existing or future financing agreements would result in a default under those agreements and under other agreements containing cross-default provisions. A default would permit debt holders to accelerate the maturity for the debt under these agreements and to foreclose upon any collateral securing the debt and to terminate any commitments to lend. Under these circumstances, we might have insufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all our obligations, including our obligations under the notes. In addition, the limitations imposed by financing agreements on our ability to incur additional debt and to take other actions might significantly impair our ability to obtain other financing.

 

The repayment of the notes effectively will be subordinated to substantially all of our existing and future secured debt and the existing and future secured debt of our subsidiaries.

 

The notes will be unsecured obligations. The notes, and any other unsecured debt securities issued by us, effectively will be junior in right of payment to all of our secured indebtedness. In the event of our bankruptcy, or the bankruptcy of our subsidiaries or special purpose vehicles, holders of any secured indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries will have claims that are prior to the claims of any debt securities issued by us with respect to the value of the assets securing our other indebtedness. As of December 31, 2016, the aggregate carrying value of our and our subsidiaries’ indebtedness was approximately $4.5 billion, including $3.3 billion of our indebtedness (none of which is secured) and $1.2 billion of indebtedness at our subsidiaries (all of which is secured).

 

If we default on our obligations under any of our secured debt, our secured lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. If any secured indebtedness were to be accelerated, there can be no assurance that our assets would be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness or our other indebtedness, including the notes. In addition, upon any distribution of assets pursuant to any liquidation, insolvency, dissolution, reorganization or similar proceeding, the holders of secured indebtedness will be entitled to receive payment in full from the proceeds of the collateral securing our secured indebtedness before the holders of the notes will be entitled to receive any payment with respect thereto. As a result, the holders of the notes may recover proportionally less than the holders of secured indebtedness. Volatility in the capital markets could also result in our consideration of issuing additional secured indebtedness.

 

Unrestricted subsidiaries generally will not be subject to any of the covenants in the indenture and we may not be able to rely on the cash flow or assets of those unrestricted subsidiaries to pay our indebtedness.

 

Subject to compliance with the restrictive covenants contained in the indentures governing the existing notes and the indenture governing the notes, we will be permitted to designate certain of our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries. If we designate a subsidiary as an unrestricted subsidiary for purposes of the indenture governing the notes, the creditors of the unrestricted subsidiary and its subsidiaries will have a senior claim on the assets of such unrestricted subsidiary and its subsidiaries. Unrestricted subsidiaries will generally not be subject to the covenants under the indenture governing the notes. Unrestricted subsidiaries may enter into financing arrangements that limit their ability to make loans or other payments to fund payments in respect of the notes. Accordingly, we may not be able to rely on the cash flow or assets of unrestricted subsidiaries to pay any of our indebtedness, including the notes.

 

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Your ability to transfer the notes may be limited by the absence of an active trading market, and there is no assurance that any active trading market will develop for the notes.

 

The notes are a new issue of securities for which there is no established public market. We do not intend to have the notes listed on a national securities exchange. The underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the notes as permitted by applicable laws and regulations; however, the underwriters are not obligated to make a market in the notes, and they may discontinue their market-making activities for the notes at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for the notes will develop or, if developed, that it will continue. We cannot assure you that the trading market, if any, for the notes will be free from disruptions that may adversely affect the prices at which you may sell your notes. In addition, subsequent to their initial issuance, the notes may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending upon prevailing interest rates, the market for similar notes, our performance and other factors. As a result, we cannot assure you that you will be able to sell your notes on favorable terms when desired, or at all.

 

If an active trading market for the notes does develop, changes in our credit ratings or the debt markets could adversely affect the market prices of the notes.

 

If an active trading market for the notes does develop, the market price for the notes will depend on many factors, including:

 

   

our credit ratings with major credit rating agencies;

 

   

the number of potential buyers and level of liquidity of the notes;

 

   

the prevailing interest rates being paid by other companies similar to us;

 

   

our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and future prospects;

 

   

the time remaining until the notes mature; and

 

   

the overall condition of the economy and the financial markets and the industry in which we operate.

 

The condition of the financial markets and prevailing interest rates have fluctuated in the past and are likely to fluctuate in the future. Fluctuations could have an adverse effect on the market prices of the notes.

 

Credit rating agencies also continually review their ratings for debt securities of companies that they follow, including us. Negative changes in our ratings, or in our outlook, would likely have an adverse effect on the market prices of the notes. One of the effects of any credit rating downgrade would be to increase our costs of borrowing in the future.

 

Redemption may adversely affect your return on the notes.

 

We have the right to redeem some or all of the notes prior to maturity, as described under “Description of the Notes—Optional Redemption.” We may redeem the notes at times when prevailing interest rates may be relatively low. Accordingly, you may not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security and obligor at an effective interest rate as high as that of the notes.

 

We may not be able to repurchase the notes upon a change of control triggering event.

 

Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control Triggering Event, as defined in “Description of the Notes—Certain Definitions,” each holder of notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or any part of such holder’s notes at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the date of repurchase. If we experience a Change of Control Triggering Event, we cannot assure you that we would have sufficient financial resources available to satisfy our obligations to repurchase the notes. Our failure to repurchase the notes as required under the indenture governing the notes would result in a default under the indenture, which could result in defaults under the instruments governing our other indebtedness, including the acceleration of the payment of any borrowings thereunder, and have material adverse consequences

 

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for us and the holders of the notes. See “Description of the Notes—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control.”

 

In addition, our revolving credit agreement provides that the occurrence of certain change of control events (including a Change of Control as defined under the indenture) with respect to us would require us to repay all borrowings thereunder. In the event a Change of Control occurs, we may seek the consent of our lenders or may attempt to refinance or repay the borrowings under our revolving credit facilities. If we do not obtain such consent or refinance or repay such borrowings, we may be in default under the revolving credit agreement, which may, in turn, constitute a default under the Indenture. Our other outstanding senior notes contain, and future indebtedness that we may incur may contain, prohibitions on the occurrence of certain events that would constitute a Change of Control or require the repurchase of such indebtedness upon a Change of Control. The exercise by the holders of the notes of their right to require us to repurchase their notes could cause a default under such indebtedness, even if a Change of Control itself does not, due to the financial effect of such repurchase on us. We cannot assure you that sufficient funds will be available when necessary to make any required repurchases.

 

There are limited covenants and protections in the indenture.

 

While the indenture and the notes contain terms intended to provide protection to holders upon the occurrence of certain events involving significant corporate transactions and our creditworthiness, these terms are limited, are subject to important exceptions and may not be sufficient to protect your investment in the notes. For example, there are no financial covenants in the indenture. We will also have the ability to make significant restricted payments following the issue date under the indenture governing the notes, although certain of our existing indentures have more limited capacity. See “Description of the Notes—Limitation on Restricted Payments.” In addition, as described under “Description of the Notes—Repurchase at the Option of Holders— Change of Control,” upon the occurrence of a Change of Control Triggering Event, holders are entitled to require us to repurchase their notes at 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the date of repurchase. However, the definition of the term “Change of Control” is limited within the indenture and does not cover a variety of transactions (such as acquisitions by us, recapitalizations or “going private” transactions by certain of our affiliates) that could negatively affect the value of your notes and if the notes have an investment grade rating from two of Fitch, Inc., Moody’s Investor Service, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group at the time of the applicable Change of Control, a Change of Control Triggering Event requiring us to offer to repurchase the notes will only be deemed to occur if, in addition to a Change of Control, there is a Rating Decline, as defined in “Description of the Notes—Certain Definitions.” Certain of our other outstanding senior notes and our revolving credit agreement require, and future indebtedness that we may incur may require, the repurchase or repayment of such indebtedness upon a Change of Control regardless of whether such indebtedness is rated investment grade at the time of such Change of Control. Therefore, holders of such other indebtedness may have a right to be repaid or have their notes repurchased prior to holders of the notes offered hereby.

 

In addition, the definition of “Change of Control” includes a disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer to certain Persons. Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, in certain circumstances there may be a degree of uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve a disposition of “all or substantially all” of the assets of the Issuer. As a result, it may be unclear as to whether a Change of Control with respect to the notes has occurred and whether a holder of the notes may require the Issuer to make an offer to repurchase the notes as described above. If we were to enter into a significant corporate transaction that negatively affects the value of the notes, but would not constitute a Change of Control Triggering Event, you would not have any rights to require us to repurchase the notes prior to their maturity, which also could materially and adversely affect your investment.

 

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Credit ratings on the notes may not reflect all risks.

 

One or more credit rating agencies are expected to assign credit ratings to the notes. Any such ratings may not reflect the potential impact of all risks related to structure, market, additional factors discussed above or incorporated by reference herein and other factors that may affect the value of the notes. A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be revised or withdrawn by the rating agency at any time. No report of any rating agency is incorporated by reference herein.

 

Federal and state fraudulent transfer laws may permit a court to void the notes, subordinate claims in respect of the notes and require noteholders to return payments received and, if that occurs, you may not receive any payments on the notes.

 

Federal and state fraudulent transfer and conveyance statutes may apply to the issuance of the notes. Under federal bankruptcy law and comparable provisions of state fraudulent transfer or conveyance laws, which may vary from state to state, the notes could be voided as a fraudulent transfer or conveyance if (1) we issued the notes with the intent of hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors or (2) we received less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration in return for issuing the notes and, in the case of (2) only, one of the following is also true at the time thereof:

 

   

we were insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of the issuance of the notes;

 

   

the issuance of the notes left us with an unreasonably small amount of capital to carry on business; or

 

   

we intended to, or believed that we would, incur debts beyond our ability to pay such debts as they mature.

 

Claims described under subparagraph (1) above are generally described as intentional fraudulent conveyances, while those under subparagraph (2) above are constructive fraudulent conveyances. A court would likely find that we did not receive reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration for the notes if we did not substantially benefit directly or indirectly from the issuance of the notes. As a general matter, value is given for a transfer or an obligation if, in exchange for the transfer or obligation, property is transferred or now or antecedent debt is secured or satisfied. To the extent that the fraudulent conveyance analysis turns on insolvency, as with a constructive fraudulent conveyance, the insolvency determination is an intensely factual one, which is supposed to be conducted based on current conditions rather than with the benefit of hindsight. Generally an entity would be considered insolvent if, at the time it incurred indebtedness, insolvency was present based on one of three alternative tests described above. For purposes of evaluating solvency under the first of these tests, a court would evaluate whether the sum of an entity’s debts, including contingent liabilities in light of the probabilities of their incurrence, was greater than the fair saleable value of all its assets.

 

If a court were to find that the issuance of the notes was a fraudulent transfer or conveyance, the court could void the payment obligations under the notes or subordinate the notes to presently existing and future indebtedness of us, or require the holders of the notes to repay any amounts received with respect to such notes. In the event of a finding that a fraudulent transfer or conveyance occurred, you may not receive any repayment on the notes.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $492.25 million, after deducting the estimated fees and expenses of this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds from the issuance and sale of the notes for general corporate purposes, which may include the acquisition of aircraft or the refinancing of our existing indebtedness.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

The following table sets forth information regarding our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods shown. For purposes of calculating this ratio, (i) earnings consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before provision (benefit) for income taxes and fixed charges and (ii) fixed charges consist of interest expense, which includes amortization of deferred finance charges, and imputed interest on our lease obligations. The interest component of rent was determined based on an estimate of a reasonable interest factor at the inception of the leases.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2016      2015      2014      2013      2012  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     1.61x        1.53x        1.47x        1.16x        1.18x  

 

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CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization, as of December 31, 2016:

 

   

on an actual basis; and

 

   

on an as adjusted basis to give effect to (i) the issuance and sale of the notes, after deducting the underwriters’ discount and estimated expenses payable in connection with this offering, as if it had occurred on December 31, 2016, and (ii) the intended application of the estimated net proceeds as set forth in “Use of Proceeds.”

 

This table contains unaudited information and should be read in conjunction with “Summary— Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein and therein.

 

     As of December 31, 2016  
     Actual     As Adjusted  
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 455,579     $ 947,829  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Debt(1):

    

Secured debt financings:(2)

    

ECA term financings

   $ 305,276     $ 305,276  

Bank financings(3)

     933,541       933,541  

Less: Debt issuance costs

     (19,783     (19,783
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total secured debt financings, net of debt issuance costs

     1,219,034       1,219,034  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Unsecured debt financings:(4)

    

Senior Notes due 2017

     500,000       500,000  

Senior Notes due 2018

     400,000       400,000  

Senior Notes due 2019

     500,000       500,000  

Senior Notes due 2020

     300,000       300,000  

Senior Notes due 2021

     500,000       500,000  

Senior Notes due 2022

     500,000       500,000  

Senior Notes due 2023

     500,000       500,000  

DBJ Term Loan

     120,000       120,000  

Notes offered hereby

     —         500,000  

Revolving credit facilities(5)

     —         —    

Less: Debt issuance costs

     (32,789     (40,539
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total unsecured debt financings, net of debt issuance costs

     3,287,211       3,779,461  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total secured and unsecured debt financings, net of debt issuance costs

     4,506,245       4,998,495  

Shareholders’ equity

     1,834,314       1,834,314  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 6,340,559     $ 6,832,809  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)   For a description of our indebtedness, see Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 incorporated by reference herein.
(2)   All secured debt financings represent debt of our subsidiaries.
(3)   Bank financings reflects a loan discount of $2.7 million.
(4)   All unsecured debt financings represent debt of the Issuer. None of our subsidiaries currently guarantees any of this debt.
(5)   As of March 1, 2017, we had no borrowings outstanding under our revolving credit facilities and we had $810 million of availability under our revolving credit facilities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE NOTES

 

General

 

The notes offered hereby will be issued under the indenture (the “ Base Indenture ”), dated as of December 5, 2013, between Aircastle Limited, as Issuer, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Trustee (the “ Trustee ”), as supplemented by a supplemental indenture between the Issuer and the Trustee, dated as of the closing date (the “ Supplemental Indenture ” and, together with the Base Indenture, the “ Indenture ”). The Indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “ Trust Indenture Act ,” or “ TIA ”). The terms of the notes include those stated in the Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act. The following is a summary of the material terms and provisions of the notes and the Indenture. The following summary does not purport to be a complete description of the notes or such agreements and is subject to the detailed provisions of, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the Indenture. You can find definitions of certain terms used in this description under the heading “—Certain Definitions.” For purposes of this summary, the term “Issuer” refers only to Aircastle Limited, and not to any of its Subsidiaries.

 

Brief Description of the Notes

 

The notes will be:

 

   

general senior obligations of the Issuer;

 

   

pari passu in right of payment with any existing and future senior Indebtedness of the Issuer;

 

   

senior in right of payment to any Subordinated Indebtedness of the Issuer; and

 

   

structurally subordinated to all liabilities and preferred stock of Subsidiaries of the Issuer.

 

Without limitation on the generality of the foregoing, the notes will be effectively subordinated to secured Indebtedness and other obligations of the Issuer to the extent of the value of the assets securing such Indebtedness and other obligations. In the event of the Issuer’s bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up, the Issuer’s assets that secure such secured Indebtedness and other obligations will be available to pay obligations on the notes only after all Indebtedness under such secured Indebtedness and other obligations have been repaid in full from such assets.

 

On the Issue Date, the notes will not be guaranteed by any Subsidiary of the Issuer. As a result, the notes will be structurally subordinated to all liabilities and obligations of our Subsidiaries. Claims of creditors of our Subsidiaries, including trade creditors, secured creditors and creditors holding debt and guarantees issued by those Subsidiaries, and claims of preferred shareholders (if any) of those Subsidiaries generally will have priority with respect to the assets and earnings of those Subsidiaries over the claims of creditors of the Issuer, including Holders.

 

On the Issue Date, all of the Issuer’s subsidiaries will be “Restricted Subsidiaries.” However, under the circumstances described below under the subheading “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments,” the Issuer will be permitted to designate certain of its Subsidiaries as “Unrestricted Subsidiaries.” The Issuer’s Unrestricted Subsidiaries will not be subject to many of the restrictive covenants in the Indenture.

 

Principal, Maturity and Interest

 

The Issuer will issue $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of notes. The notes will mature on , 2024. The Issuer may issue additional notes from time to time after this offering under the Indenture (“ Additional Notes ”). Any offering of Additional Notes is subject to the covenants described below under the caption “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock.”

 

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The notes and any Additional Notes subsequently issued under the Indenture will be treated as a single class for all purposes under the Indenture, although they may bear a different CUSIP number. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “notes” for all purposes of the Indenture and this “Description of the Notes” include any Additional Notes that are actually issued. The notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

 

Interest on the notes will accrue at the rate of         % per annum. Interest on the notes will be payable semi-annually in arrears on                  and                 , commencing on                 , 2017 to Holders of record on the immediately preceding and. Interest on the notes will accrue from the most recent date to which interest has been paid, or, if no interest has been paid, from the date of issuance of the notes. Interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year comprised of twelve 30-day months.

 

Payment of Additional Amounts

 

Under current Bermuda law, no withholding tax will be imposed upon payments on the notes or the Note Guarantees, if any. If the Issuer (or a Guarantor, if any) or other applicable withholding agent is required by law to deduct or withhold taxes imposed by Bermuda or another Relevant Tax Jurisdiction on payments to Holders, however, it will pay additional amounts on those payments to the extent described in this section. “Relevant Tax Jurisdiction” means Bermuda, or another jurisdiction in which the Issuer or a Guarantor, or a successor of any of them, is organized, is resident or engaged in business for tax purposes or through which payments are made on or in connection with the notes or the Note Guarantees.

 

The Issuer (or a Guarantor) will pay to any Holder so entitled all additional amounts that may be necessary so that every net payment of interest, principal, premium or other amount received by the beneficial owner on that note or the Note Guarantee will not be less than the amount provided for in that note or Note Guarantee. “Net payment” refers to the amount the Issuer, any Guarantor or their paying agent pays the Holder after deduction or withholding by the applicable withholding agent of an amount for or on account of any present or future tax, assessment or other governmental charge imposed with respect to that payment by a taxing authority (including any withholding or deduction attributable to additional amounts payable hereunder).

 

The Issuer (and Guarantors) will also indemnify and reimburse Holders for:

 

   

taxes (including any interest, penalties and related expenses) imposed on the Holders (or if a Holder is not the beneficial owner, the beneficial owner) by a Relevant Tax Jurisdiction if and to the same extent that a Holder would have been entitled to receive additional amounts if the Issuer (or a Guarantor) or other applicable withholding agent had been required to deduct or withhold those taxes from payments on the notes or the Note Guarantees; and

 

   

stamp, court, documentary or similar taxes or charges (including any interest, penalties and related expenses) imposed by a Relevant Tax Jurisdiction in connection with the execution, delivery, enforcement or registration of the notes or the Note Guarantees or other related documents and obligations.

 

This obligation to pay additional amounts is subject to several important exceptions, however. The Issuer (or a Guarantor) will not pay additional amounts to any Holder for or on account of any of the following:

 

   

any tax, assessment or other governmental charge imposed solely because at any time there is or was a connection between the Holder (or between a fiduciary, settlor, beneficiary, member or shareholder of or possessor of power over the relevant Holder if the Holder is an estate, nominee, trust, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation) and the Relevant Tax Jurisdiction imposing the tax (other than the mere receipt of a payment or the acquisition, ownership, disposition or holding of, or enforcement of rights under, a note or the Note Guarantees);

 

   

any estate, inheritance, gift or any similar tax, assessment or other governmental charge;

 

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any tax, assessment or other governmental charge imposed solely because the Holder (or if the Holder is not the beneficial owner, the beneficial owner) fails to comply with any certification, identification or other reporting requirement concerning the nationality, residence, identity or connection with the taxing jurisdiction of the Holder or any beneficial owner of the note or the Note Guarantees, if compliance is required by law or by an applicable income tax treaty to which the jurisdiction imposing the tax is a party, as a precondition to an exemption from the tax, assessment or other governmental charge for which such Holder is eligible and the Issuer (or a Guarantor) has given the Holders at least 60 days’ notice that Holders will be required to provide such information and identification;

 

   

any tax, assessment or other governmental charge with respect to a note or a Note Guarantee presented for payment more than 30 days after the date on which payment became due and payable or the date on which payment thereof is duly provided for and notice thereof given to Holders, whichever occurs later, except to the extent that the Holder of the note would have been entitled to additional amounts on presenting the note for payment on any date during the 30-day period; and

 

   

any withholding or deduction imposed on a payment to an individual that is required to be made pursuant to the European Union Directive on the taxation of savings income, which was adopted by the ECOFIN Council on June 3, 2003, or any law implementing or complying with, or introduced in order to conform to, such Directive.

 

Payments

 

Principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the notes will be payable at the office or agency of the Issuer maintained for such purpose within the City and State of New York or, at the option of the Issuer, payment of interest may be made by check mailed to Holders at their respective addresses set forth in the register of Holders; provided that all payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest with respect to notes represented by one or more global notes registered in the name of or held by DTC or its nominee will be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the Holder or Holders thereof. Until otherwise designated by the Issuer, the Issuer’s office or agency in Minnesota will be the office of the trustee maintained for such purpose.

 

Ranking

 

The Indebtedness evidenced by the notes will be senior Indebtedness of the Issuer and will rank pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior Indebtedness of the Issuer. The Indebtedness evidenced by the notes will be senior in right of payment to all existing and future Subordinated Indebtedness of the Issuer.

 

As of December 31, 2016, on an as adjusted basis after giving effect to this offering and the use of proceeds specified herein, the Issuer and its Subsidiaries would have had $5.0 billion aggregate principal amount of Indebtedness outstanding, $1.2 billion of which was secured debt and none of which was Subordinated Indebtedness. All of the operations of the Issuer are conducted through its Subsidiaries. Claims of creditors on such Subsidiaries, including trade creditors, and claims of preferred shareholders (if any) of such Subsidiaries, generally will have priority with respect to the assets and earnings of such Subsidiaries over the claims of creditors of the Issuer, including the Holders. The notes, therefore, will be structurally subordinated to holders of Indebtedness and other creditors (including trade creditors) and preferred shareholders (if any) of the Subsidiaries of the Issuer. As of December 31, 2016, our Subsidiaries had approximately $1.2 billion of outstanding Indebtedness and other obligations (excluding intercompany liabilities). The liens covenant only applies to us and our subsidiaries that guarantee the notes, and the notes will initially not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

 

Although the Indenture will limit the incurrence of Indebtedness by certain of the Issuer’s Subsidiaries, such limitation is subject to a number of significant qualifications. See “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock.”

 

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Note Guarantees

 

On the Issue Date, the notes will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries or any third party.

 

From and after the Issue Date, the Issuer will not cause or permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (other than a Guarantor), directly or indirectly, to guarantee any Indebtedness of the Issuer or any other Guarantor unless, such Restricted Subsidiary:

 

  (a)   within 10 Business Days of the date on which it guarantees Indebtedness of the Issuer or any Guarantor executes and delivers to the Trustee a supplemental indenture pursuant to which such Restricted Subsidiary shall guarantee (each, a “Note Guarantee”) all of the Issuer’s obligations under the notes and the Indenture and other terms contained in the applicable supplemental indenture and subject to the conditions contained in such supplemental indenture; and

 

  (b)   delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate that all conditions precedent to the execution of such supplemental indenture have been complied with.

 

Thereafter, such Subsidiary shall be a Guarantor for all purposes of the Indenture until such Note Guarantee is released in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture. In the event of a sale or other transfer or disposition of all of the Capital Stock in any Guarantor to any Person that is not an Affiliate of the Issuer in compliance with the terms of the Indenture, or in the event all or substantially all the assets or Capital Stock of a Guarantor are sold or otherwise transferred, by way of merger, consolidation or otherwise, to a Person that is not an Affiliate of the Issuer in compliance with the terms of the Indenture, then, without any further action on the part of the Trustee or any Holder, such Guarantor (or the Person concurrently acquiring such assets of such Guarantor) shall be deemed automatically and unconditionally cancelled, released and discharged of any obligations under its Note Guarantee, as evidenced by a supplemental indenture, written instrument or confirmation executed by the Trustee, upon request; provided , however that the Issuer delivers an Officers’ Certificate to the Trustee certifying that the net cash proceeds of such sale or other disposition will be applied in accordance with the “Asset Sales” covenant and, if evidence of such cancellation, discharge or release is requested to be executed by the Trustee, an Officers’ Certificate and an opinion of counsel. In addition, upon the release or discharge of any guarantee which resulted in the creation of a Note Guarantee (except a discharge or release by or as a result of payment under such guarantee), the Guarantor of such Note Guarantee shall be deemed automatically and unconditionally cancelled, released and discharged of any obligations under its Note Guarantee, as evidenced by a supplemental indenture, written instrument or confirmation executed by the Trustee, upon request. The Issuer may cause any other Subsidiary of the Issuer to issue a Note Guarantee and become a Guarantor.

 

Each Note Guarantee by a Restricted Subsidiary will be limited to an amount not to exceed the maximum amount that can be guaranteed by that Restricted Subsidiary without rendering the Note Guarantee, as it relates to such Restricted Subsidiary, voidable under applicable law relating to fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer or similar laws affecting the rights of creditors generally.

 

Mandatory Redemption

 

The Issuer is not required to make mandatory redemption or sinking fund payments with respect to the notes, but the Issuer may be required to offer to purchase the notes as set forth below under “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders.”

 

Optional Redemption

 

Prior to             , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes), the Issuer may, at any time and from time to time, redeem all or a part of the notes, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ prior notice mailed by first class mail to each Holder’s registered address, at a redemption price equal to the greater of (a) 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not

 

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including, the redemption date, and (b) the sum of the present values of 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed and the remaining scheduled payments of interest on the notes from the redemption date through             , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes) (computed using a discount rate equal to the Treasury Rate as of such redemption date plus 50 basis points), plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date.

 

On and after             , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes), the Issuer may on on any one or more occasions redeem all or a part of the notes, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ prior notice mailed by first class mail to each Holder’s registered address, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the aggregate principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date, subject to the right of Holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date.

 

Prior to             , 2020, the Issuer may, at its option, at any time and from time to time, redeem up to 40% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes issued (including any Additional Notes) under the Indenture at a redemption price equal to     % of the aggregate principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date, subject to the right of Holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date, with the net proceeds of one or more Equity Offerings of the Issuer; provided that at least 60% of the sum of the aggregate principal amount of the notes originally issued under the Indenture on the Issue Date remains outstanding immediately after the occurrence of each such redemption; provided further that each such redemption occurs within 90 days of the date of closing of each such Equity Offering.

 

The Trustee shall select the notes to be purchased in the manner described under “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Selection and Notice.”

 

Notice of redemption, whether in connection with an Equity Offering or otherwise, may be given prior to the completion thereof, and any such redemption or notice may, at the Issuer’s option and discretion, be subject to one or more conditions precedent, including, but not limited to, completion of the related Equity Offering or other transaction. In addition, if such redemption is subject to satisfaction of one or more conditions precedent, such notice shall state that, in the Issuer’s discretion, the redemption date may be delayed until such time as any or all such conditions shall be satisfied, or such redemption may not occur and such notice may be rescinded in the event that any or all such conditions shall not have been satisfied by the redemption date, or by the redemption date so delayed. In addition, the Issuer may provide in such notice that payment of the redemption price and performance of the Issuer’s obligations with respect to such redemption may be performed by another Person (it being understood that any such provision for payment by another Person will not relieve the Issuer and the Guarantors from their obligations with respect to such redemption).

 

Redemption for Taxation Reasons

 

The Issuer will be entitled, at its option, to redeem the notes in whole if at any time it becomes obligated to pay additional amounts on the notes on the next interest payment date, but only if the obligation results from a change in, or an amendment to, the laws or treaties (including any regulations or official rulings promulgated thereunder) of a Relevant Tax Jurisdiction (or a political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein), or from a change in any official position regarding the interpretation, administration or application of those laws, treaties, regulations or official rulings (including a change resulting from a holding, judgment or order by a court of competent jurisdiction), that becomes effective and is announced after the Issue Date (or, if the applicable Relevant Tax Jurisdiction became a Relevant Tax Jurisdiction on a date after the Issue Date, such later date) and

 

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provided the Issuer cannot avoid the obligation after taking reasonable measures to do so. If the Issuer redeems the notes in these circumstances, it will do so at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, and any other amounts due to the redemption date.

 

If the Issuer becomes entitled to redeem the notes in these circumstances, it may do so at any time on a redemption date of its choice. However, the Issuer must give the Holders notice of the redemption not less than 30 days or more than 60 days before the redemption date and not more than 90 days before the next date on which it would be obligated to pay additional amounts. In addition, the Issuer’s obligation to pay additional amounts must remain in effect when it gives the notice of redemption. Notice of the Issuer’s intent to redeem the notes shall not be effective until such time as it delivers to the Trustee both a certificate signed by two of its officers stating that the obligation to pay additional amounts cannot be avoided by taking reasonable measures and an opinion of independent legal counsel or an independent auditor stating that the Issuer is obligated to pay additional amounts because of an amendment to or change in law, treaties or position as described in the preceding paragraph.

 

In addition to the Issuer’s rights to redeem notes as set forth above, the Issuer may at any time and from time to time purchase notes in open-market transactions, tender offers or otherwise.

 

Repurchase at the Option of Holders

 

Change of Control

 

If a Change of Control Triggering Event occurs, the Issuer will make an offer to purchase all of the notes pursuant to the offer described below (the “ Change of Control Offer ”) at a price in cash (the “ Change of Control Payment ”) equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount thereof plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the date of purchase, subject to the right of Holders of record of the notes on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date. Within 30 days following any Change of Control Triggering Event, the Issuer will send notice of such Change of Control Offer by first class mail, with a copy to the Trustee, to each Holder of the notes to the address of such Holder appearing in the security register with a copy to the Trustee or otherwise in accordance with the procedures of DTC, with the following information:

 

  (1)   a Change of Control Offer is being made pursuant to the covenant entitled “Change of Control,” and that all notes properly tendered pursuant to such Change of Control Offer will be accepted for payment;

 

  (2)   the purchase price and the purchase date, which will be no earlier than 30 days nor later than 60 days from the date such notice is mailed (the “ Change of Control Payment Date ”);

 

  (3)   any note not properly tendered will remain outstanding and continue to accrue interest;

 

  (4)   unless the Issuer defaults in the payment of the Change of Control Payment, all notes accepted for payment pursuant to the Change of Control Offer will cease to accrue interest on, but not including, the Change of Control Payment Date;

 

  (5)   Holders electing to have any notes purchased pursuant to a Change of Control Offer will be required to surrender such notes, with the form entitled “Option of Holder to Elect Purchase” on the reverse of such notes completed, to the paying agent specified in the notice at the address specified in the notice prior to the close of business on the third business day preceding the Change of Control Payment Date;

 

  (6)   Holders will be entitled to withdraw their tendered notes and their election to require the Issuer to purchase such notes; provided that the paying agent receives, not later than the close of business on the last day of the offer period, a telegram, telex, facsimile transmission or letter setting forth the name of the Holder, the principal amount of notes tendered for purchase, and a statement that such Holder is withdrawing his tendered notes and his election to have such notes purchased;

 

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  (7)   if such notice is mailed prior to the occurrence of a Change of Control Triggering Event, stating the Change of Control Offer is conditional on the occurrence of such Change of Control Triggering Event; and

 

  (8)   that Holders whose notes are being purchased only in part will be issued new notes equal in principal amount to the unpurchased portion of the notes surrendered, which unpurchased portion must be equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

 

While the notes are in global form and the Issuer makes an offer to purchase all of the notes pursuant to the Change of Control Offer, a Holder may exercise its option to elect for the purchase of the notes through the facilities of DTC, subject to its rules and regulations.

 

If Holders of not less than 90% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes validly tender and do not withdraw such notes in a Change of Control Offer and the Issuer, or any other Person making a Change of Control Offer in lieu of the Issuer as described below, purchase all of the notes validly tendered and not withdrawn by such Holders, the Issuer will have the right, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ prior notice, given not more than 30 days following such purchase pursuant to the Change of Control Offer described above, to redeem all notes that remain outstanding following such purchase at a redemption price in cash equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, to, but not including, the date of redemption, subject to the right of Holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date.

 

We will not be required to make a Change of Control Offer following a Change of Control Triggering Event if (1) a third party makes the Change of Control Offer in the manner, at the times and otherwise in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Indenture applicable to a Change of Control Offer made by us and purchases all notes tendered and not withdrawn under such Change of Control Offer or (2) notice of redemption has been given pursuant to the Indenture as described under the caption “—Optional Redemption,” unless and until there is a default in payment of the applicable redemption price. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, a Change of Control Offer may be made in advance of a Change of Control Triggering Event, conditional upon such Change of Control.

 

The Issuer will comply with the requirements of Section 14(e) under the Exchange Act and any other securities laws and regulations thereunder to the extent such laws or regulations are applicable in connection with the repurchase of the notes pursuant to a Change of Control Offer. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with the provisions of the Indenture, the Issuer will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and shall not be deemed to have breached its obligations described in the Indenture by virtue thereof.

 

On the Change of Control Payment Date, the Issuer will, to the extent permitted by law,

 

  (1)   accept for payment all notes or portions thereof properly tendered pursuant to the Change of Control Offer,

 

  (2)   deposit with the paying agent an amount equal to the aggregate Change of Control Payment in respect of all notes or portions thereof so tendered, and

 

  (3)   deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee for cancellation the notes so accepted together with an Officers’ Certificate stating that such notes or portions thereof have been tendered to and purchased by the Issuer.

 

The paying agent will promptly mail to each Holder of the notes the Change of Control Payment for such notes, and the Trustee will promptly authenticate and mail to each Holder a new note equal in principal amount to any unpurchased portion of the notes surrendered, if any; provided that each such new note will be in a principal amount of $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. The Issuer will publicly announce the results of the Change of Control Offer on or as soon as practicable after the Change of Control Payment Date.

 

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The Change of Control Triggering Event purchase feature of the notes may in certain circumstances make more difficult or discourage a sale or takeover of us and, thus, the removal of incumbent management. The Change of Control Triggering Event purchase feature is a result of negotiations between the underwriters and us. After the Closing Date, we have no present intention to engage in a transaction involving a Change of Control Triggering Event, although it is possible that we could decide to do so in the future. Subject to the limitations discussed below, we could, in the future, enter into certain transactions, including acquisitions, refinancings or other recapitalizations, that would not constitute a Change of Control Triggering Event under the Indenture, but that could increase the amount of Indebtedness outstanding at such time or otherwise affect our capital structure or credit ratings. Restrictions on our ability to incur additional Indebtedness are contained in the covenants described under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” and “Certain Covenants—Liens.” Such restrictions in the Indenture can be waived only with the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the notes then outstanding. Except for the limitations contained in such covenants, however, the Indenture will not contain any covenants or provisions that may afford Holders protection in a highly levered transaction.

 

Our revolving credit agreement provides that the occurrence of certain change of control events (including a Change of Control as defined under the Indenture) with respect to us would constitute a default thereunder. In the event a Change of Control occurs, we may seek the consent of our lenders or may attempt to refinance or repay the borrowings under the revolving credit agreement. If we do not obtain such consent or refinance or repay such borrowings, we may be in default under the revolving credit agreement, which may, in turn, constitute a default under the Indenture. In addition, future indebtedness that we may incur may contain prohibitions on the occurrence of certain events that would constitute a Change of Control or require the repurchase of such indebtedness upon a Change of Control. The exercise by the Holders of their right to require us to repurchase their notes could cause a default under such indebtedness, even if a Change of Control itself does not, due to the financial effect of such repurchase on us. We cannot assure you that sufficient funds will be available when necessary to make any required repurchases.

 

The definition of “Change of Control” includes a disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer to certain Persons. Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, in certain circumstances there may be a degree of uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve a disposition of “all or substantially all” of the assets of the Issuer. As a result, it may be unclear as to whether a Change of Control has occurred and whether a Holder of the notes may require the Issuer to make an offer to repurchase the notes as described above.

 

The provisions under the Indenture relative to our obligation to make an offer to repurchase the notes as a result of a Change of Control Triggering Event may be waived or modified with the written consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the notes then outstanding, including after the entry into an agreement that would result in the need to make a Change of Control Offer.

 

Asset Sales

 

The Indenture will provide that the Issuer will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, cause, make or suffer to exist an Asset Sale, unless:

 

  (1)   the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, receives consideration at the time of such Asset Sale at least equal to the Fair Market Value of the assets sold or otherwise disposed of; and

 

  (2)   except in the case of a Permitted Asset Swap, at least 75% of the consideration therefor received by the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, is in the form of cash or Cash Equivalents.

 

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Within 450 days after the Issuer’s or a Restricted Subsidiary’s receipt of the Net Proceeds of any Asset Sale covered by the preceding paragraph, the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary, at its option, may apply the Net Proceeds from such Asset Sale:

 

  (1)   to make one or more offers to the Holders (and, at the option of the Issuer, the holders of other senior Indebtedness) to purchase notes (and such senior Indebtedness) pursuant to and subject to the conditions contained in the Indenture (each, an “ Asset Sale Offer ”); provided , however , that in connection with any prepayment, repayment or purchase of Indebtedness pursuant to this clause (1), the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary shall permanently retire such Indebtedness; provided further that if the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary shall so reduce any senior Indebtedness (other than the notes), the Issuer will seek to equally and ratably reduce Indebtedness under the notes by making an offer to all Holders to purchase at a purchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, the pro rata principal amount of the notes, such offer to be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth below for an Asset Sale Offer but without any further limitation in amount;

 

  (2)   to make an investment in (a) any one or more businesses; provided that such investment in any business is in the form of the acquisition of Capital Stock and results in the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, owning an amount of the Capital Stock of such business such that it constitutes a Restricted Subsidiary, (b) capital expenditures or (c) acquisitions of other long-term assets (including minority interests in Restricted Subsidiaries), in each of (a), (b) and (c), used or useful in a Similar Business;

 

  (3)   to reduce Indebtedness of a Restricted Subsidiary, other than Indebtedness owed to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary; provided that the acquisition of Indebtedness of a Restricted Subsidiary by the Issuer shall constitute a reduction in such Indebtedness; or

 

  (4)   any combination of the foregoing.

 

Pending the final application of such Net Proceeds, the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary may temporarily reduce borrowings under Credit Facilities or any other revolving credit facility, if any, or otherwise invest such Net Proceeds in any manner not prohibited by the Indenture. Any Net Proceeds that are not invested or applied as provided and within the time period set forth in the first sentence of the immediately preceding paragraph will be deemed to constitute “ Excess Proceeds .” In the case of clause (2) above, a binding commitment shall be treated as a permitted application of the Net Proceeds from the date of such commitment; provided that (x) such investment is consummated within 635 days after receipt by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Net Proceeds of any Asset Sale and (y) if such investment is not consummated within the period set forth in subclause (x), the Net Proceeds not so applied will be deemed to be Excess Proceeds. When the aggregate amount of Excess Proceeds exceeds $50.0 million, the Issuer shall make an Asset Sale Offer to all Holders, and, if required by the terms of any senior Indebtedness, to the holders of such senior Indebtedness, to purchase the maximum principal amount of notes (that are $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof) and such other senior Indebtedness, that may be purchased out of the Excess Proceeds at an offer price in cash in an amount equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the date fixed for the closing of such offer, in accordance with the procedures set forth in the Indenture or agreement governing such other senior Indebtedness, as applicable. The Issuer will commence an Asset Sale Offer with respect to Excess Proceeds within 30 days after the date that Excess Proceeds exceeds $50.0 million by mailing the notice required pursuant to the terms of the Indenture, with a copy to the Trustee. To the extent that the aggregate amount of notes and such senior Indebtedness tendered pursuant to an Asset Sale Offer is less than the Excess Proceeds, the Issuer may use any remaining Excess Proceeds for general corporate purposes or any other purposes not prohibited by the terms of the Indenture, subject to other covenants contained in the Indenture. If the aggregate principal amount of notes or the senior Indebtedness surrendered by such holders thereof exceeds the amount of Excess Proceeds, the notes and such senior Indebtedness will be purchased on a pro rata basis based on the principal amount of the notes or such senior Indebtedness tendered. Upon

 

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completion of any such Asset Sale Offer, the amount of Excess Proceeds shall be reset at zero. After the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary has applied the Net Proceeds from any Asset Sale as provided in, and within the time periods required by, this paragraph, the balance of such Net Proceeds, if any, from such Asset Sale may be used by the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary for any purpose not prohibited by the terms of the Indenture.

 

For purposes of this covenant, the following are deemed to be cash or Cash Equivalents:

 

  (a)   any liabilities (as shown on the Issuer’s, or such Restricted Subsidiary’s most recent internally available balance sheet or in the notes thereto) of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary (whether assumed or otherwise discharged), other than liabilities that are by their terms subordinated to the notes;

 

  (b)   any securities received by the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary from such transferee that are converted by the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary into cash (to the extent of the cash received) within 180 days following the closing of such Asset Sale; and

 

  (c)   any Designated Noncash Consideration received by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary in such Asset Sale having an aggregate Fair Market Value, taken together with all other Designated Noncash Consideration received pursuant to this clause (c) that is at that time outstanding, not to exceed the greater of (x) $200.0 million and (y) 3.0% of Total Assets at the time of the receipt of such Designated Noncash Consideration, with the Fair Market Value of each item of Designated Noncash Consideration being measured at the time received and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value.

 

The Issuer will comply with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 under the Exchange Act and any other securities laws and regulations thereunder to the extent such laws or regulations are applicable in connection with the repurchase of the notes pursuant to an Asset Sale Offer. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with the provisions of the Indenture, the Issuer will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and shall not be deemed to have breached its obligations described in the Indenture by virtue thereof.

 

Selection and Notice

 

If less than all of the notes are to be redeemed at any time, selection of such notes for redemption will be made by the Trustee in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange and DTC procedures, if any, on which such notes are listed, or, if such notes are not so listed, on a pro rata basis or by lot or such similar method in accordance with the procedures of DTC; provided that no notes of $2,000 or less shall be purchased or redeemed in part.

 

Notices of purchase or redemption shall be mailed by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 but not more than 60 days before the purchase or redemption date to each Holder of notes to be purchased or redeemed at such Holder’s registered address. If any note is to be purchased or redeemed in part only, any notice of purchase or redemption that relates to such note shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof that has been or is to be purchased or redeemed.

 

A new note in principal amount equal to the unpurchased or unredeemed portion of any note purchased or redeemed in part will be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original note. On and after the purchase or redemption date, unless the Issuer defaults in payment of the purchase or redemption price, interest shall cease to accrue on notes or portions thereof purchased or called for redemption.

 

Financial Calculations for Limited Condition Transactions

 

When calculating the availability under any basket or ratio under the Indenture or determining the absence of a Default or Event of Default (or any type of Default or Event of Default) as a condition to the making of any acquisition or other Permitted Investment the consummation of which is not conditioned on the availability of, or

 

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on obtaining, third party financing (each, a “ Limited Condition Transaction ”) or incurrence of Indebtedness in connection therewith, the determination of whether the relevant condition is satisfied may be made, at the irrevocable election of the Issuer (such election, a “ Limited Condition Transaction Election ”), at the time of (and on the basis of the financial statements for the most recently ended fiscal period for which financial statements are available at the time of) either (x) the execution of the definitive agreement with respect to such Limited Condition Transaction or (y) the consummation of the Limited Condition Transaction, in each case, after giving effect to the relevant Limited Condition Transaction and any related transactions (including any incurrence of Indebtedness and the use of proceeds thereof), on a pro forma basis (such date, the “ Limited Condition Transaction Test Date ”). If the Issuer makes such a Limited Condition Transaction Election, any subsequent calculation of any basket or ratio shall be calculated on an equivalent pro forma basis, unless the definitive agreement for such Limited Condition Transaction expires or is terminated without its consummation. Any Limited Condition Transaction Election shall be made pursuant to a written notice from the Issuer delivered to the Trustee at the time of the execution of the definitive agreements with respect to the Limited Condition Transaction; provided however , that, to the extent the Issuer has not delivered such written notice to the Trustee by the time of execution of the definitive agreements with respect to such transaction, the relevant conditions required to be satisfied as a condition to consummating such transaction and/or incurring such Indebtedness will be tested at the time of consummation of such transaction and the related incurrence of Indebtedness.

 

For the avoidance of doubt, if the Issuer has made a Limited Condition Transaction Election and any of the ratios or baskets for which compliance was determined or tested as of the Limited Condition Transaction Test Date (including with respect to the incurrence of any Indebtedness) are exceeded as a result of fluctuations in any such ratio or basket (including due to fluctuations of the target of any Limited Condition Transaction) at or prior to the consummation of the relevant transaction or action, such baskets or ratios will not be deemed to have been exceeded as a result of such fluctuations.

 

Certain Covenants

 

Set forth below are summaries of certain covenants contained in the Indenture. If on any date following the Issue Date (i) the notes have Investment Grade Ratings from two Rating Agencies, and (ii) no Default has occurred and is continuing under the Indenture (the occurrence of the events described in the foregoing clauses (i) and (ii) being collectively referred to as a “ Covenant Suspension Event ”), the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries will not be subject to the following covenants (collectively, the “ Suspended Covenants ”):

 

  (1)   “Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales”;

 

  (2)   “—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (3)   “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (4)   clause (4) of the first paragraph of “—Amalgamation, Merger, Consolidation or Sale of All or Substantially All Assets”;

 

  (5)   “—Transactions with Affiliates”; and

 

  (6)   “—Dividend and Other Payment Restrictions Affecting Restricted Subsidiaries.”

 

In the event that the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries are not subject to the Suspended Covenants under the Indenture for any period of time as a result of the foregoing, and on any subsequent date (the “ Reversion Date ”) one of the Rating Agencies (or two of the Rating Agencies if, at such time, the notes have an Investment Grade Rating from three Rating Agencies) (a) withdraws its Investment Grade Rating or downgrades the rating assigned to the notes below an Investment Grade Rating and/or (b) the Issuer or any of its Affiliates enters into an agreement to effect a transaction that would result in a Change of Control and such Rating Agency (or Rating Agencies) indicates that if consummated, such transaction (alone or together with any related recapitalization or refinancing transactions) would cause such Rating Agency to withdraw its Investment Grade Rating or downgrade the ratings assigned to the notes below an Investment Grade Rating, then the Issuer and the Restricted

 

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Subsidiaries will thereafter again be subject to the Suspended Covenants under the Indenture with respect to future events, including, without limitation, a proposed transaction described in clause (b) above.

 

The period of time between the Suspension Date and the Reversion Date is referred to in this description as the “ Suspension Period .” Additionally, upon the occurrence of a Covenant Suspension Event, the amount of Excess Proceeds from Net Proceeds shall be reset at zero. During the Suspension Period no additional subsidiary may be designated an Unrestricted Subsidiary unless such designation would have been permitted if the covenant described under the caption “Limitation on Restricted Payments” had been in effect at all times during the Suspension Period. In the event of any such reinstatement, no action taken or omitted to be taken by the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries prior to such reinstatement will give rise to a Default or Event of Default under the Indenture; provided that (1) with respect to Restricted Payments made after any such reinstatement, the amount of Restricted Payments made will be calculated as though the covenant described under the caption “—Limitation on Restricted Payments” had been in effect prior to, but not during, the Suspension Period, (2) all Indebtedness incurred, or Disqualified Stock or preferred stock issued, during the Suspension Period will be classified to have been incurred or issued pursuant to clause (3) of the second paragraph of “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” and (3) Liens incurred during the Suspension Period pursuant to clause (18) of the definition of “Permitted Liens” will be classified to have been incurred pursuant to clause (6) of the definition of “Permitted Liens.”

 

There can be no assurance that the notes will ever achieve or maintain Investment Grade Ratings.

 

Limitation on Restricted Payments.

 

The Issuer will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, directly or indirectly:

 

  (1)   declare or pay any dividend or make any distribution on account of the Issuer’s or any Restricted Subsidiary’s Equity Interests, including any dividend or distribution payable in connection with any amalgamation, merger or consolidation other than:

 

  (a)   dividends or distributions by the Issuer payable in Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Issuer or in options, warrants or other rights to purchase such Equity Interests; or

 

  (b)   dividends or distributions by a Restricted Subsidiary so long as, in the case of any dividend or distribution payable on or in respect of any class or series of securities issued by a Restricted Subsidiary other than a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary, the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary receives at least its pro rata share of such dividend or distribution in accordance with its Equity Interests in such class or series of securities;

 

  (2)   purchase, redeem, defease or otherwise acquire or retire for value any Equity Interests of the Issuer, including in connection with any amalgamation, merger or consolidation;

 

  (3)   make any principal payment on, or redeem, repurchase, defease or otherwise acquire or retire for value in each case, prior to any scheduled repayment, sinking fund payment or maturity, any Subordinated Indebtedness, other than (x) the purchase, repurchase or other acquisition of Subordinated Indebtedness purchased in anticipation of satisfying a sinking fund obligation, principal installment or final maturity, in each case due within one year of the date of purchase, repurchase or acquisition and (y) Indebtedness of the Issuer to a Restricted Subsidiary or a Restricted Subsidiary to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary (“Intercompany Subordinated Indebtedness”); or

 

  (4)   make any Restricted Investment;

 

(all such payments and other actions set forth in clauses (1) through (4) above being collectively referred to as “ Restricted Payments ”), unless, at the time of such Restricted Payment:

 

  (a)   no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing or would occur as a consequence thereof;

 

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  (b)   immediately after giving effect to such transaction on a pro forma basis, the Issuer could incur $1.00 of additional indebtedness under the provisions of the first paragraph of the covenant described “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”; and

 

  (c)   such Restricted Payment, together with the aggregate amount of all other Restricted Payments made by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries after the Issue Date (including Restricted Payments permitted by clauses (1) and (14) (with respect to the payment of dividends on Refunding Capital Stock pursuant to clause (b) thereof only) of the next succeeding paragraph, but excluding all other Restricted Payments permitted by the next succeeding paragraph), is less than the sum of:

 

  (1) 50% of the Consolidated Net Income of the Issuer for the period (taken as one accounting period) from April 1, 2012 to the end of the Issuer’s most recently ended fiscal quarter for which internal financial statements are available at the time of such Restricted Payment, or, in the case such Consolidated Net Income for such period is a deficit, minus 100% of such deficit, plus

 

  (2) 100% of the aggregate net cash proceeds and the Fair Market Value of marketable securities or other property received by the Issuer since immediately after April 4, 2012 (other than net cash proceeds to the extent such net cash proceeds have been used to incur Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock pursuant to clause (l) of the second paragraph of “Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”) from the issue or sale of:

 

  (x) Equity Interests of the Issuer, excluding cash proceeds and the Fair Market Value of marketable securities or other property received from the sale of (A) Equity Interests to members of management, directors or consultants of the Issuer and the Issuer’s Subsidiaries after April 4, 2012 to the extent such amounts have been applied to Restricted Payments made in accordance with clause (3) of the next succeeding paragraph; and (B) Designated Preferred Stock; or

 

  (y) debt securities, Designated Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary that have been converted into or exchanged for such Equity Interests of the Issuer;

 

provided , however , that this clause (2) shall not include the proceeds from (a) Refunding Capital Stock (as defined below), (b) Equity Interests or converted or exchanged debt securities of the Issuer sold to a Restricted Subsidiary or the Issuer, as the case may be, (c) Disqualified Stock or debt securities that have been converted into or exchanged for Disqualified Stock or (d) Excluded Contributions, plus

 

  (3) 100% of the aggregate amount of cash and the Fair Market Value of marketable securities or other property contributed to the capital of the Issuer following April 4, 2012 (other than net cash proceeds to the extent such net cash proceeds have been used to incur Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock pursuant to clause (l) of the second paragraph of “Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”) (other than by a Restricted Subsidiary and other than by any Excluded Contributions), plus

 

  (4) 100% of the aggregate amount received in cash and the Fair Market Value of marketable securities or other property received by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary by means of:

 

  (a)

the sale or other disposition (other than to the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary) of Restricted Investments made by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries and repurchases and redemptions of such Restricted Investments from the Issuer and its

 

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Restricted Subsidiaries and repayments of loans or advances which constitute Restricted Investments by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries in each case after April 4, 2012; or

 

  (b) the sale (other than to the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary) of the stock of an Unrestricted Subsidiary (other than in each case to the extent the Investment in such Unrestricted Subsidiary was made by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary pursuant to clause (8) of the next succeeding paragraph or to the extent such Investment constituted a Permitted Investment) or a dividend or distribution from an Unrestricted Subsidiary in each case after April 4, 2012; plus

 

  (5) in the case of the redesignation of an Unrestricted Subsidiary as a Restricted Subsidiary, the Fair Market Value of the Investment in such Unrestricted Subsidiary at the time of the redesignation of such Unrestricted Subsidiary as a Restricted Subsidiary, other than to the extent the Investment in such Unrestricted Subsidiary was made by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary pursuant to clause (6) of the next succeeding paragraph or to the extent such Investment constituted a Permitted Investment.

 

As of December 31, 2016, the amount available for Restricted Payments pursuant to clause (c) above and pursuant to the most restrictive similar covenant in the indenture governing the Issuer’s existing notes would have been approximately $733.6 million and $282.1 million, respectively.

 

The foregoing provisions will not prohibit:

 

  (1)   the payment of any dividend, distribution or redemption within 60 days after the date of declaration thereof or call for redemption, if at the date of declaration or call for redemption such payment or redemption would have complied with the provisions of the Indenture;

 

  (2)   the redemption, repurchase or other acquisition or retirement of Subordinated Indebtedness of the Issuer made by exchange for, or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale of, new Indebtedness of the Issuer, which is incurred in compliance with “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” so long as:

 

  (a)   the principal amount (or accreted value) of such new Indebtedness does not exceed the principal amount, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, of the Subordinated Indebtedness being so redeemed, repurchased, acquired or retired for value, plus the amount of any premium and any tender premiums, defeasance costs or other fees and expenses incurred in connection with the issuance of such new Indebtedness,

 

  (b)   such Indebtedness has a final scheduled maturity date equal to or later than the earlier of (x) the final scheduled maturity date of the Subordinated Indebtedness being so redeemed, repurchased, acquired or retired and (y) 91 days following the maturity of the notes, and

 

  (c)   such Indebtedness has a Weighted Average Life to Maturity which is not less than the shorter of (x) the remaining Weighted Average Life to Maturity of the Subordinated Indebtedness being so redeemed, repurchased, acquired or retired and (y) the Weighted Average Life to Maturity that would result if all payments of principal on the Subordinated Indebtedness being so redeemed, repurchased, defeased, acquired or retired that were due on or after the date one year following the maturity date of any notes then outstanding were instead due on such date one year following the maturity date of such notes (provided that, in the case of this subclause (C)(y), such Indebtedness does not provide for any scheduled principal payments prior to the maturity date of the notes in excess of, or prior to, the scheduled principal payments due prior to such maturity for the Indebtedness being refunded or refinanced or defeased);

 

  (3)  

a Restricted Payment to pay for the repurchase, retirement or other acquisition or retirement for value of common Equity Interests of the Issuer held by any future, present or former employee, director or consultant of the Issuer, any of its Subsidiaries pursuant to any management equity plan or stock option

 

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plan or any other management or employee benefit plan or other agreement or arrangement; provided , however , that the aggregate Restricted Payments made under this clause (3) do not exceed in any calendar year $20.0 million, plus in calendar year 2017 an amount up to $10.0 million that was unused in calendar years 2015 and 2016 under the same clause (3) contained in the indenture governing the Issuer’s existing notes (with unused amounts in any calendar year being carried over to succeeding calendar years subject to a maximum (without giving effect to the following proviso) of $40.0 million in any calendar year); provided further that such amount in any calendar year may be increased by an amount not to exceed:

 

  (a)   the cash proceeds from the sale of Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Issuer to members of management, directors or consultants of the Issuer, any of its Subsidiaries that occurred after the Issue Date, to the extent the cash proceeds from the sale of such Equity Interests have not otherwise been applied to the payment of Restricted Payments by virtue of clause (c) of the preceding paragraph, plus

 

  (b)   the cash proceeds of key man life insurance policies received by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries after the Issue Date; less

 

  (c)   the amount of any Restricted Payments previously made pursuant to clauses (A) and (B) of this clause (3);

 

provided that the Issuer may elect to apply all or any portion of the aggregate increase contemplated by subclauses (A) and (B) above in any calendar year;

 

  (4)   the declaration and payment of dividends to holders of any class or series of Disqualified Stock of the Issuer or any other Restricted Subsidiary issued in accordance with the covenant described under “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” to the extent such dividends are included in the definition of Fixed Charges;

 

  (5)   the declaration and payment of dividends to holders of any class or series of Designated Preferred Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) issued by the Issuer after the Issue Date; provided that the aggregate amount of dividends paid pursuant to this clause (5) shall not exceed the aggregate amount of cash actually received by the Issuer from the sale of such Designated Preferred Stock; provided , however , that for the most recently ended four full fiscal quarters for which internal financial statements are available immediately preceding the date of issuance of such Designated Preferred Stock, after giving effect to such issuance on a pro forma basis, the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries would have had a Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio of at least 2.00 to 1.00;

 

  (6)   Investments in Unrestricted Subsidiaries having an aggregate fair market value, taken together with all other Investments made pursuant to this clause (6) that are at the time outstanding, not to exceed the greater of $70.0 million and 1.0% of Total Assets at the time of such investment; provided , that the dollar amount of Investments made pursuant to this clause (6) may be reduced by the Fair Market Value of the proceeds received by the Issuer and/or its Restricted Subsidiaries from the subsequent sale, disposition or other transfer of such Investments (with the fair market value of each Investment being measured at the time made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value and, for the avoidance of doubt, any return of capital with respect to an Investment reduces the Fair Market Value of such Investment then outstanding for the purpose of this clause (6) by the amount of such return of capital);

 

  (7)   repurchases of Equity Interests deemed to occur (i) upon exercise of stock options or warrants if such Equity Interests represent a portion of the exercise price of such options or warrants or (ii) in connection with the exercise or vesting of stock options or similar instruments to the extent necessary to pay withholding taxes related to such exercise or vesting of stock options or similar instruments;

 

  (8)   Restricted Payments that are made with Excluded Contributions;

 

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  (9)   other Restricted Payments in an aggregate amount taken together with all other Restricted Payments made pursuant to this clause (9) not to exceed the greater of $200.0 million or 3.0% of Total Assets;

 

  (10)   Restricted Payments by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary to allow the payment of cash in lieu of the issuance of fractional shares upon the exercise of options or warrants or upon the conversion or exchange of Capital Stock of any such Person;

 

  (11)   the purchase by the Issuer of fractional shares arising out of stock dividends, splits or combinations or business combinations;

 

  (12)   distributions or payments of Receivables Fees;

 

  (13)   the repurchase, redemption or other acquisition or retirement for value of any Subordinated Indebtedness required pursuant to the provisions similar to those described under the captions “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Change of Control” and “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales”; provided that there is a concurrent or prior Change of Control Offer or Asset Sale Offer, as applicable, and all notes tendered by Holders in connection with such Change of Control Offer or Asset Sale Offer, as applicable, have been repurchased, redeemed or acquired for value;

 

  (14)   (a) any Restricted Payment in exchange for, or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale (other than to a Restricted Subsidiary) of, Equity Interests of the Issuer (other than any Disqualified Stock) (“ Refunding Capital Stock ”) and (b) if immediately prior to the redemption, repurchase, retirement or other acquisition of any Equity Interests of the Issuer (“ Retired Capital Stock ”) pursuant to clause (a), the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries would have had a Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio of at least 2.00 to 1.00, the declaration and payment of dividends on the Refunding Capital Stock in an aggregate amount per year no greater than the aggregate amount of dividends per annum that was declarable and payable on such Retired Capital Stock immediately prior to such retirement; and

 

  (15)   the payment of a dividend on common stock of the Issuer of up to the greater of $100.0 million or 1.5% of Total Assets in any calendar year (with unused amounts in any calendar year being carried over to succeeding calendar years but subject to a maximum of the greater of $200.0 million or 3.0% of Total Assets in any calendar year);

 

provided however , that at the time of, and after giving effect to, any Restricted Payment permitted under clauses (3), (4), (5), (6), (9), (14) and (15), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing or would occur as a consequence thereof.

 

For purposes of determining compliance with this covenant, in the event that a proposed Restricted Payment (or a portion thereof) meets the criteria of clauses (1) through (15) above or is entitled to be made pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant or the definition of “Permitted Investments,” the Issuer will be able to classify or later reclassify such Restricted Payment (or a portion thereof) between such clauses (1) through (15) and such first paragraph and the definition of “Permitted Investments” in any manner that complies with this covenant.

 

As of the time of issuance of the notes, all of the Issuer’s Subsidiaries will be Restricted Subsidiaries. The Issuer will not permit any Unrestricted Subsidiary to become a Restricted Subsidiary except pursuant to the last sentence of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiary.” For purposes of designating any Restricted Subsidiary as an Unrestricted Subsidiary, all outstanding Investments by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries (except to the extent repaid) in the Subsidiary so designated will be deemed to be Restricted Payments in an amount determined as set forth in the last sentence of the definition of “Investment.” Such designation will be permitted only if a Restricted Payment in such amount would be permitted at such time, whether pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant or under clause (6), (8) or (9) of the second paragraph of this covenant, or pursuant to the definition of “Permitted Investments,” and if such Subsidiary otherwise meets the definition of an Unrestricted Subsidiary. Unrestricted Subsidiaries will not be subject to any of the restrictive covenants set forth in the Indenture.

 

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Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock.

 

The Issuer will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, directly or indirectly, create, incur, issue, assume, guarantee or otherwise become directly or indirectly liable, contingently or otherwise, (collectively, “incur” and collectively, an “incurrence”) with respect to any Indebtedness (including Acquired Indebtedness) and the Issuer will not issue any shares of Disqualified Stock and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to issue any shares of Disqualified Stock or preferred stock; provided , however , that the Issuer may incur Indebtedness (including Acquired Indebtedness) or issue shares of Disqualified Stock, and any Restricted Subsidiary may incur Indebtedness (including Acquired Indebtedness), issue shares of Disqualified Stock and issue shares of preferred stock, if the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries for the most recently ended four full fiscal quarters for which internal financial statements are available immediately preceding the date on which such additional Indebtedness is incurred or such Disqualified Stock or preferred stock is issued would have been at least 2.00 to 1.00, determined on a pro forma basis (including a pro forma application of the net proceeds therefrom), as if the additional Indebtedness had been incurred, or the Disqualified Stock or preferred stock had been issued, as the case may be, and the application of proceeds therefrom had occurred at the beginning of such four-quarter period.

 

The foregoing limitations will not apply to:

 

  (1)   the incurrence of Indebtedness of the Issuer or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries under Credit Facilities; provided , however , that, after giving effect to any such incurrence, the aggregate principal amount of all Indebtedness incurred under this clause (1) and then outstanding does not exceed the greater of (x) $825.0 million and (y) 12.5% of Total Assets at the time of such incurrence;

 

  (2)   the incurrence by the Issuer of Indebtedness represented by the notes (other than any Additional Notes);

 

  (3)   Existing Indebtedness (other than Indebtedness described in clauses (1) and (2));

 

  (4)   Indebtedness (including Capitalized Lease Obligations), Disqualified Stock and preferred stock incurred by the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, to finance the purchase, lease or improvement of property (real or personal) or equipment that is used or useful in a Similar Business, whether through the direct purchase of assets or the Capital Stock of any Person owning such assets, in an aggregate principal amount which, when aggregated with the principal amount of all other Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock and preferred stock then outstanding and incurred pursuant to this clause (4) and including all Refinancing Indebtedness incurred at any time to refund, refinance or replace any other Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock and preferred stock incurred pursuant to this clause (4), does not exceed the greater of (x) $70.0 million and (y) 1% of Total Assets;

 

  (5)   Indebtedness incurred by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary constituting reimbursement obligations with respect to letters of credit and bank guarantees issued, including without limitation letters of credit in respect of workers’ compensation claims, health, disability or other benefits to employees or former employees or their families or property, casualty or liability insurance or self-insurance, and letters of credit in connection with the maintenance of, or pursuant to the requirements of, environmental or other permits or licenses from governmental authorities, or other Indebtedness with respect to reimbursement type obligations regarding workers’ compensation claims; provided , however , that upon the drawing of such letters of credit or the incurrence of such Indebtedness, such obligations are reimbursed within 30 days following such drawing or incurrence;

 

  (6)   Indebtedness arising from agreements of the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary providing for indemnification, adjustment of purchase price or similar obligations, in each case, incurred or assumed in connection with the disposition of any business, assets or a Subsidiary, other than guarantees of Indebtedness incurred by any Person acquiring all or any portion of such business, assets or a Subsidiary for the purpose of financing such acquisition;

 

  (7)  

Indebtedness of the Issuer to a Restricted Subsidiary; provided that, other than in the case of intercompany current liabilities incurred in connection with the cash management or similar operations

 

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of the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries to finance working capital needs of the Restricted Subsidiaries, any such Indebtedness is subordinated in right of payment to the notes; provided further that any subsequent issuance or transfer of any Capital Stock or any other event which results in any such Restricted Subsidiary ceasing to be a Restricted Subsidiary or any other subsequent transfer of any such Indebtedness (except to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary) shall be deemed, in each case to be an incurrence of such Indebtedness not permitted by this clause (7);

 

  (8)   Indebtedness of a Restricted Subsidiary to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary; provided that, any subsequent transfer of any such Indebtedness (except to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary) shall be deemed in each case to be an incurrence of such Indebtedness not permitted by this clause (8);

 

  (9)   shares of preferred stock of a Restricted Subsidiary issued to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary; provided that any subsequent issuance or transfer of any Capital Stock or any other event which results in any such Restricted Subsidiary ceasing to be a Restricted Subsidiary or any other subsequent transfer of any such shares of preferred stock (except to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary) shall be deemed in each case to be an issuance of such shares of preferred stock not permitted by this clause (9);

 

  (10)   Hedging Obligations (excluding Hedging Obligations entered into for speculative purposes) for the purpose of limiting:

 

  (a)   interest rate risk; or

 

  (b)   exchange rate risk with respect to any currency exchange; or

 

  (c)   commodity risk; or

 

  (d)   any combination of the foregoing;

 

  (11)   obligations in respect of performance, bid, appeal and surety bonds and completion guarantees provided by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary in the ordinary course of business or consistent with past practice or industry practice;

 

  (12)   Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock and preferred stock of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary not otherwise permitted hereunder in an aggregate principal amount or liquidation preference, which when aggregated with the principal amount and liquidation preference of all other Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock and preferred stock then outstanding and incurred pursuant to this clause (12), does not at any one time outstanding exceed the sum of:

 

  (x) the greater of (1) $350.0 million and (2) 5.0% of Total Assets; and

 

  (y) 100% of the net cash proceeds received by the Issuer since immediately after the Issue Date from the issue or sale of Equity Interests of the Issuer or cash contributed to the capital of the Issuer (in each case other than proceeds of Disqualified Stock or sales of Equity Interests to the Issuer or any of its Subsidiaries) as determined in accordance with clauses (c)(2) and (c)(3) of the first paragraph of “—Limitation on Restricted Payments” to the extent such net cash proceeds or cash have not been applied pursuant to such clauses to make Restricted Payments or to make other investments, payments or exchanges pursuant to the second paragraph of “—Limitation on Restricted Payments” or to make Permitted Investments (other than Permitted Investments specified in clauses (1) and (3) of the definition thereof);

 

  (13)   (a) any guarantee by the Issuer of Indebtedness or other obligations of any Restricted Subsidiary so long as the incurrence of such Indebtedness incurred by such Restricted Subsidiary is permitted under the terms of the Indenture, or

 

  (b)   any guarantee by a Restricted Subsidiary of Indebtedness of the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary so long as the incurrence of such Indebtedness incurred by the Issuer or such other Restricted Subsidiary is permitted under the terms of the Indenture;

 

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  (14)   the incurrence by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary of Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock at any time which serves to refund or refinance any Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock incurred as permitted under the first paragraph of this covenant and clauses (2) and (3) above, this clause (14) and clauses (15) and (17) below or any Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock issued to so refund or refinance such Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock including additional Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock incurred to pay premiums (including tender premiums), defeasance costs and fees in connection therewith (the “ Refinancing Indebtedness ”) prior to its respective maturity; provided , however , that such Refinancing Indebtedness:

 

  (a)   except in the case of Indebtedness incurred pursuant to clause (17) below or any Refinancing Indebtedness of such Indebtedness, has a Weighted Average Life to Maturity at the time such Refinancing Indebtedness is incurred which is not less than the shorter of (x) remaining Weighted Average Life to Maturity of the Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock being refunded or refinanced and (y) in the case of Subordinated Indebtedness, the Weighted Average Life to Maturity that would result if all payments of principal on the Subordinated Indebtedness being so redeemed, repurchased, defeased, acquired or retired that were due on or after the date one year following the maturity date of any notes then outstanding were instead due on such date one year following the maturity date of such notes (provided that, in the case of this subclause (n)(1)(y), such Indebtedness does not provide for any scheduled principal payments prior to the maturity date of the notes in excess of, or prior to, the scheduled principal payments due prior to such maturity for the Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock being refunded or refinanced or defeased);

 

  (b)   to the extent such Refinancing Indebtedness refinances (i) Indebtedness subordinated in right of payment to the notes, such Refinancing Indebtedness is subordinated in right of payment to the notes at least to the same extent as the Indebtedness being refinanced or refunded or (ii) Disqualified Stock or preferred stock, such Refinancing Indebtedness must be Disqualified Stock or preferred stock, respectively; and

 

  (c)   shall not include

 

  (x) Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock of a Subsidiary that refinances Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock of the Issuer; or

 

  (y) Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock of the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary that refinances Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock of an Unrestricted Subsidiary;

 

  (15)   Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock of Persons that are acquired by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary or amalgamated or merged into the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary in accordance with the terms of the Indenture; provided that such Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock is not incurred in contemplation of such acquisition, amalgamation or merger; provided further that after giving effect to such acquisition, amalgamation or merger, either:

 

  (a)   the Issuer would be permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test set forth in the first sentence of this covenant; or

 

  (b)   the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is not less than immediately prior to such acquisition, amalgamation or merger;

 

  (16)   Indebtedness arising from the honoring by a bank or other financial institution of a check, draft or similar instrument drawn against insufficient funds in the ordinary course of business; provided that such Indebtedness is extinguished within five Business Days of its incurrence;

 

  (17)  

Indebtedness (including Capitalized Lease Obligations), Disqualified Stock and preferred stock, including any predelivery payment financing, incurred by the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, relating to the purchase, lease, acquisition, improvement or modification of any aircraft,

 

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engines, spare parts or similar assets, including in the form of financing from aircraft or engine manufacturers or their affiliates and whether through the direct purchase of assets or the Capital Stock of any Person owning such assets, so long as the amount of such indebtedness does not exceed the purchase price of such aircraft and any improvements or modifications thereto and is incurred not later than 365 days after the date of such purchase, lease, acquisition, improvement or modification;

 

  (18)   Indebtedness of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary supported by a letter of credit issued pursuant to Credit Facilities, in a principal amount not in excess of the stated amount of such letter of credit; and

 

  (19)   Indebtedness of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary consisting of (i) the financing of insurance premiums or (ii) take-or-pay obligations contained in supply arrangements, in each case, in the ordinary course of business.

 

For purposes of determining compliance with this covenant, in the event that an item of Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock meets the criteria of more than one of the categories of permitted Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock described in clauses (1) through (19) above or is entitled to be incurred pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant, the Issuer, in its sole discretion, may classify or reclassify such item of Indebtedness in any manner that complies with this covenant and the Issuer may divide and classify an item of Indebtedness in more than one of the types of Indebtedness described in the first and second paragraphs above. Accrual of interest, the accretion of accreted value and the payment of interest in the form of additional Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock will not be deemed to be an incurrence of Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock for purposes of this covenant.

 

For purposes of determining compliance with any U.S. dollar-denominated restriction on the incurrence of Indebtedness, the U.S. dollar-equivalent principal amount of Indebtedness denominated in a foreign currency shall be calculated based on the relevant currency exchange rate in effect on the date such Indebtedness was incurred, in the case of term debt, or first committed, in the case of revolving credit debt; provided that if such Indebtedness is incurred to refinance other Indebtedness denominated in a foreign currency, and such refinancing would cause the applicable U.S. dollar denominated restriction to be exceeded if calculated at the relevant currency exchange rate in effect on the date of such refinancing, such U.S. dollar- denominated restriction shall be deemed not to have been exceeded so long as the principal amount of such refinancing Indebtedness does not exceed the principal amount of such Indebtedness being refinanced.

 

The principal amount of any Indebtedness incurred to refinance other Indebtedness, if incurred in a different currency from the Indebtedness being refinanced, shall be calculated based on the currency exchange rate applicable to the currencies in which such respective Indebtedness is denominated that is in effect on the date of such refinancing.

 

The Indenture will provide that the Issuer will not, directly or indirectly, incur any Indebtedness (including Acquired Indebtedness) that is subordinated or junior in right of payment to any Indebtedness of the Issuer unless such Indebtedness is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes to the extent and in the same manner as such Indebtedness is subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Issuer.

 

The Indenture will not treat (1) unsecured Indebtedness as subordinated or junior to secured Indebtedness merely because it is unsecured or (2) Indebtedness as subordinated or junior to any other Indebtedness merely because it has a junior priority with respect to the same collateral.

 

Liens

 

The Issuer will not create, incur, assume or otherwise cause or suffer to exist or become effective any Lien that secures obligations under any Indebtedness of the Issuer or any Guarantor (the “Initial Lien”) of any kind upon any of its property or assets, now owned or hereafter acquired, except any Initial Lien if (i) the notes are equally and ratably secured with (or on a senior basis to, in the case such Initial Lien secures any Subordinated

 

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Indebtedness) the obligations secured by such Initial Lien or (ii) such Initial Lien is a Permitted Lien. Any Lien created for the benefit of the Holders pursuant to clause (i) of the preceding paragraph shall provide by its terms that such Lien shall be automatically and unconditionally released and discharged upon the release and discharge of the Initial Lien.

 

Amalgamation, Merger, Consolidation or Sale of All or Substantially All Assets

 

The Issuer may not consolidate, amalgamate or merge with or into or wind up into (whether or not the Issuer is the surviving corporation), or sell, assign, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties or assets in one or more related transactions, to any Person unless:

 

  (1)   the Issuer is the surviving corporation or the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation, amalgamation or merger (if other than the Issuer) or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance or other disposition will have been made is a Person organized or existing under the laws of a Permitted Jurisdiction (such Person, as the case may be, being herein called the “ Successor Company ”);

 

  (2)   the Successor Company, if other than the Issuer, expressly assumes all the obligations of the Issuer under the Indenture and the notes pursuant to supplemental indentures or other documents or instruments in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee;

 

  (3)   immediately after such transaction no Default or Event of Default exists;

 

  (4)   immediately after giving pro forma effect to such transaction, as if such transaction had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period,

 

  (a)   the Successor Company would be permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test set forth in the first sentence of the covenant described under “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” or

 

  (b)   the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for the Successor Company and the Restricted Subsidiaries would be not less than such ratio for the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries immediately prior to such transaction; and

 

  (5)   the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that such consolidation, amalgamation, merger or transfer and such supplemental indentures, if any, comply with the Indenture and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplement shall comply with the applicable provisions of the Indenture.

 

The Successor Company will succeed to, and be substituted for the Issuer under the Indenture and the notes. Notwithstanding the foregoing clauses (3) and (4),

 

  (a)   any Restricted Subsidiary may consolidate with, amalgamate or merge into or transfer all or part of its properties and assets to the Issuer; and

 

  (b)   the Issuer may amalgamate or merge with an Affiliate incorporated solely for the purpose of reincorporating the Issuer in any Permitted Jurisdiction so long as the amount of Indebtedness of the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries is not increased thereby.

 

Transactions with Affiliates

 

The Issuer will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, make any payment to, or sell, lease, transfer or otherwise dispose of any of its properties or assets to, or purchase any property or assets from, or enter into or make or amend any transaction, contract, agreement, understanding, loan, advance or guarantee with, or

 

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for the benefit of, any Affiliate of the Issuer (each of the foregoing, an “ Affiliate Transaction ”) involving aggregate payments or consideration in excess of $25.0 million, unless:

 

  (a)   such Affiliate Transaction is on terms that are not materially less favorable to the Issuer or the relevant Restricted Subsidiary than those that would have been obtained in a comparable transaction by the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary with an unrelated Person as determined by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer in good faith; and

 

  (b)   the Issuer delivers to the Trustee with respect to any Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions involving aggregate payments or consideration in excess of $25.0 million, a resolution adopted by the majority of the Board of Directors approving such Affiliate Transaction and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate certifying that such Affiliate Transaction complies with clause (a) above.

 

The foregoing provisions will not apply to the following:

 

  (1)   transactions between or among the Issuer and/or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (2)   Restricted Payments permitted by the provisions of the Indenture described above under the covenant “—Limitation on Restricted Payments” and Permitted Investments;

 

  (3)   the payment of reasonable and customary fees paid to, and indemnities provided on behalf of, officers, directors, employees or consultants of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (4)   transactions in which the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, delivers to the Trustee a letter from an Independent Financial Advisor stating that such transaction is fair to the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary from a financial point of view or meets the requirements of clause (a) of the preceding paragraph;

 

  (5)   payments or loans (or cancellation of loans) to employees or consultants of the Issuer, or any Restricted Subsidiary which are approved by a majority of the Board of Directors of the Issuer in good faith;

 

  (6)   any agreement as in effect as of the Issue Date, or any amendment or replacement thereto (so long as any such amendment, taken as a whole, is not materially less favorable to the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries than the agreement in effect on the date of the Indenture (as determined by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer in good faith));

 

  (7)   the existence of, or the performance by the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of its obligations under the terms of, any shareholders agreement (including any registration rights agreement or purchase agreement related thereto) to which it is a party as of the Issue Date and any similar agreements which it may enter into thereafter; provided , however , that the existence of, or the performance by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary of obligations under any future amendment to any such existing agreement or under any similar agreement entered into after the Issue Date shall only be permitted by this clause (7) to the extent that the terms of any such amendment or new agreement, taken as a whole, is not materially less favorable to the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries than the agreement in effect on the date of the Indenture (as determined by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer in good faith);

 

  (8)   transactions with customers, clients, suppliers, or purchasers or sellers of goods or services, in each case in the ordinary course of business and otherwise in compliance with the terms of the Indenture which are fair to the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries, in the reasonable determination of the Issuer, or are on terms, taken as a whole, at least as favorable as might reasonably have been obtained at such time from an unaffiliated party (as determined by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer in good faith);

 

  (9)   the issuance of Equity Interests (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Issuer to any Affiliate of the Issuer;

 

  (10)  

transactions or payments pursuant to any employee, officer or director compensation or benefit plans, employment agreements, severance agreement, indemnification agreements or any similar

 

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arrangements entered into in the ordinary course of business or approved in good faith by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer;

 

  (11)   transactions in the ordinary course with (i) Unrestricted Subsidiaries or (ii) joint ventures in which the Issuer or a Subsidiary of the Issuer holds or acquires an ownership interest (whether by way of Capital Stock or otherwise) so long as the terms of any such transactions, taken as a whole, are not materially less favorable to the Issuer or Subsidiary participating in such joint ventures than they are to other joint venture partners as determined by the Board of Directors in good faith;

 

  (12)   transactions with a Person (other than an Unrestricted Subsidiary of the Issuer) that is an Affiliate of the Issuer solely because the Issuer owns, directly or through a Restricted Subsidiary, an Equity Interest in, or controls, such Person;

 

  (13)   sales of accounts receivable, or participations therein, in connection with any Receivables Facility;

 

  (14)   any transaction in which the Issuer delivers to the Trustee a copy of a written opinion as to the fairness of such transaction to the Issuer or such Restricted Subsidiary from a financial point of view issued by an Independent Financial Advisor; and

 

  (15)   transactions with a Person solely in its capacity as a holder of Indebtedness of the Issuer or any of its Subsidiaries; provided such transaction is with all holders of such class of Indebtedness (provided the holders of such class includes non-Affiliate holders) and such Person is treated no more favorably than holders of Indebtedness of the Issuer or such Subsidiaries generally as determined by the Board of Directors or management of the Issuer.

 

Dividend and Other Payment Restrictions Affecting Restricted Subsidiaries

 

The Issuer will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, directly or indirectly, create or otherwise cause or suffer to exist or become effective any consensual encumbrance or consensual restriction on the ability of any such Restricted Subsidiary to:

 

  (1)   (a) pay dividends or make any other distributions to the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary on its Capital Stock or with respect to any other interest or participation in, or measured by, its profits or

 

  (b)   pay any Indebtedness owed to the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (2)   make loans or advances to the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary; or

 

  (3)   sell, lease or transfer any of its properties or assets to the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary, except (in each case) for such encumbrances or restrictions existing under or by reason of:

 

  (a)   contractual encumbrances or restrictions in effect on the Issue Date;

 

  (b)   the Indenture and the notes;

 

  (c)   purchase money obligations for property acquired that impose restrictions of the nature discussed in clause (3) above on the property so acquired;

 

  (d)   applicable law or any applicable rule, regulation or order;

 

  (e)   any agreement or other instrument of a Person (or assets) acquired by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary in existence at the time of such acquisition (but not created in contemplation thereof), which encumbrance or restriction is not applicable to any Person, or the properties or assets of any Person, other than the Person, or the property or assets of the Person, so acquired;

 

  (f)   contracts for the sale of assets, including, without limitation, customary restrictions with respect to a Subsidiary pursuant to an agreement that has been entered into for the sale or disposition of all or substantially all of the Capital Stock or assets of such Subsidiary that impose restrictions on the assets to be sold;

 

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  (g)   secured Indebtedness otherwise permitted to be incurred pursuant to the covenants described under “—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” and “—Liens” that limit the right of the debtor to dispose of the assets securing such Indebtedness;

 

  (h)   restrictions on cash or other deposits or net worth imposed by customers under contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business or consistent with past practice or industry practice;

 

  (i)   customary provisions in joint venture agreements and other similar agreements relating to such joint venture;

 

  (j)   customary provisions contained in leases, licenses and other agreements entered into in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (k)   any such encumbrance or restriction with respect to a Foreign Subsidiary pursuant to an agreement governing Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock incurred by such Foreign Subsidiary that was permitted by the terms of the Indenture to be incurred;

 

  (l)   any such encumbrance or restriction pursuant to an agreement governing Indebtedness permitted to be incurred by the terms of the Indenture, which encumbrances or restrictions are, in the good faith judgment of the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer not materially more restrictive, taken as a whole, than customary provisions in comparable financings and that the management of the Issuer determines, at the time of such financing, will not materially impair the Issuer’s ability to make payments as required under the Notes;

 

  (m)   any encumbrances or restrictions of the type referred to in clauses (1), (2) and (3) above imposed by any amendments, modifications, restatements, renewals, increases, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings of the contracts, instruments or obligations referred to in clauses (a) through (l) above; provided that such amendments, modifications, restatements, renewals, increases, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings are, in the good faith judgment of the Issuer, not materially more restrictive, taken as a whole, with respect to such encumbrance and other restrictions than those prior to such amendment, modification, restatement, renewal, increase, supplement, refunding, replacement or refinancing; and

 

  (n)   restrictions created in connection with any Receivables Facility that, in the good faith determination of the Board of Directors of the Issuer, are necessary or advisable to effect such Receivables Facility.

 

Reports and Other Information

 

Notwithstanding that the Issuer may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or otherwise report on an annual and quarterly basis on forms provided for such annual and quarterly reporting pursuant to rules and regulations promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Indenture will require the Issuer to file with the Commission (and make available to the Trustee and Holders (without exhibits), without cost to each Holder, within 15 days after it files them with the Commission),

 

  (a)   within 90 days (or any time period then in effect under the rules and regulations of the Exchange Act for a non-accelerated filer) plus any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act, after the end of each fiscal year, annual reports on Form 10-K, or any successor or comparable form, containing the information required to be contained therein, or required in such successor or comparable form;

 

  (b)   within 45 days (or any time period then in effect under the rules and regulations of the Exchange Act) plus any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act, after the end of each of the first three fiscal quarters of each fiscal year, reports on Form 10-Q, containing the information required to be contained therein, or any successor or comparable form;

 

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  (c)   promptly from time to time after the occurrence of an event required to be therein reported, such other reports on Form 8-K, or any successor or comparable form; and

 

  (d)   any other information, documents and other reports which the Issuer would be required to file with the Commission if it were subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act;

 

provided that the Issuer shall not be so obligated to file such reports with the Commission if the Commission does not permit such filing, in which event the Issuer will make available such information to prospective purchasers of notes, in addition to providing such information to the Trustee and the Holders, in each case within 15 days after the time the Issuer would be required to file such information with the Commission, if it were subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

The Issuer will be deemed to have furnished such information referred to in this covenant to the Trustee and the Holders of notes if the Issuer has filed or furnished such information in reports filed with the Commission and such reports are publicly available on the Commission’s website; provided , however , that the Trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information, documents or reports have been so filed or furnished.

 

Events of Default and Remedies

 

The following events constitute “ Events of Default ” with respect to the notes under the Indenture:

 

  (1)   default in payment when due and payable, upon redemption, acceleration or otherwise, of principal of, or premium, if any, on the notes issued under the Indenture;

 

  (2)   default for 30 days or more in the payment when due of interest on or with respect to the notes issued under the Indenture;

 

  (3)   failure by the Issuer for 60 days after receipt of written notice given by the Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the notes then outstanding and issued under the Indenture to comply with any of its other agreements in the Indenture or the notes; provided , however , that such 60-day period shall be 120 days with respect to provisions set forth under “—Reports and Other Information”;

 

  (4)   default under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there is issued or by which there is secured or evidenced any Indebtedness for money borrowed by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary or the payment of which is guaranteed by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary, other than Indebtedness owed to the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary, whether such Indebtedness or guarantee now exists or is created after the issuance of the notes, if both:

 

  (a)   such default either:

 

   

results from the failure to pay any such Indebtedness at its stated final maturity (after giving effect to any applicable grace periods); or

 

   

relates to an obligation other than the obligation to pay principal of any such Indebtedness at its stated final maturity and results in the holder or holders of such Indebtedness causing such Indebtedness to become due prior to its stated maturity; and

 

  (b)   the principal amount of such Indebtedness, together with the principal amount of any other such Indebtedness in default for failure to pay principal at stated final maturity (after giving effect to any applicable grace periods), or the maturity of which has been so accelerated, aggregate $50.0 million or more at any one time outstanding;

 

  (5)   failure by the Issuer or any Significant Subsidiary to pay final judgments aggregating in excess of $50.0 million, which final judgments remain unpaid, undischarged and unstayed for a period of more than 60 days after such judgment becomes final, and in the event such judgment is covered by insurance, an enforcement proceeding has been commenced by any creditor upon such judgment or decree which is not promptly stayed; or

 

  (6)   certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency with respect to the Issuer or any Significant Subsidiary.

 

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If any Event of Default (other than of a type specified in clause (6) above) occurs and is continuing under the Indenture, the Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding notes issued under the Indenture may declare the principal, premium, if any, interest and any other monetary obligations on all the then outstanding notes issued under the Indenture to be due and payable immediately.

 

Upon the effectiveness of such declaration, such principal and interest will be due and payable immediately. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the case of an Event of Default arising under clause (6) of the first paragraph of this section, all outstanding notes will become due and payable without further action or notice. Holders may not enforce the Indenture or the notes except as provided in the Indenture. Subject to certain limitations, Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding notes issued under the Indenture may direct the Trustee in its exercise of any trust or power. The Indenture will provide that the Trustee may withhold from Holders notice of any continuing Default or Event of Default, except a Default or Event of Default relating to the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on the notes, if it determines that withholding notice is in their interest. In addition, the Trustee shall have no obligation to accelerate the notes if in the best judgment of the Trustee acceleration is not in the best interest of the Holders.

 

The Indenture will provide that the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes issued thereunder by written notice to the Trustee may on behalf of the Holders waive any existing Default or Event of Default and its consequences under the Indenture except a continuing Default or Event of Default in the payment of interest on, premium, if any, or the principal of any note held by a non-consenting Holder. In the event of any Event of Default specified in clause (4), such Event of Default and all consequences thereof (excluding any resulting payment default, other than as a result of the acceleration of the notes) shall be annulled, waived and rescinded, automatically and without any action by the Trustee or the Holders, if within 20 days after such Event of Default arose

 

  (x)   the Indebtedness or guarantee that is the basis for such Event of Default has been discharged, or

 

  (y)   the holders thereof have rescinded or waived the acceleration, notice or action (as the case may be) giving rise to such Event of Default, or

 

  (z)   if the default that is the basis for such Event of Default has been cured.

 

The Indenture will provide that the Issuer is required to deliver to the Trustee annually a statement regarding compliance with the Indenture, and the Issuer is required, within five Business Days, upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default or any default under any document, instrument or agreement representing Indebtedness of the Issuer, to deliver to the Trustee a statement specifying such Default or Event of Default.

 

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Shareholders

 

No director, officer, employee, incorporator or shareholder of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary shall have any liability for any obligations of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary under the notes or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Holder by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the notes. Such waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws and it is the view of the Commission that such a waiver is against public policy.

 

Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

 

The obligations of the Issuer under the Indenture will terminate (other than certain obligations) and will be released upon payment in full of all of the notes under the Indenture. The Issuer may, at its option and at any time, elect to have all of its obligations under the Indenture discharged (“ Legal Defeasance ”) and cure all then existing Events of Default except for:

 

  (1)   the rights of Holders of notes issued under the Indenture to receive payments in respect of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on such notes when such payments are due solely out of the trust created pursuant to the Indenture,

 

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  (2)   the Issuer’s obligations under the Indenture concerning issuing temporary notes, registration of such notes, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen notes and the maintenance of an office or agency for payment and money for security payments held in trust,

 

  (3)   the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee, and the Issuer’s obligations in connection therewith, and

 

  (4)   the Legal Defeasance provisions of the Indenture.

 

In addition, the Issuer may, at its option and at any time, elect to have its obligations released with respect to certain covenants that are described in the Indenture (“ Covenant Defeasance ”) and thereafter any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default. In the event Covenant Defeasance occurs, certain events (not including bankruptcy, receivership, rehabilitation and insolvency events pertaining to the Issuer) described under “Events of Default” will no longer constitute an Event of Default.

 

In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance:

 

  (1)   the Issuer must irrevocably deposit with the Trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the Holders, cash in U.S. dollars, Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest due on the notes on the stated maturity date or on the redemption date, as the case may be, of such principal, premium, if any, or interest on the notes; provided that, with respect to any redemption that requires the payment of the Applicable Premium, the amount deposited shall be sufficient for purpose of the Indenture to the extent that an amount is deposited with the Trustee equal to the Applicable Premium calculated as of the date of the notice of redemption, with any deficit on the date of redemption (any such amount, the “ Applicable Premium Deficit ”) only required to be deposited with the Trustee on or prior to the date of redemption. Any Applicable Premium Deficit shall be set forth in an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee simultaneously with the deposit of such Applicable Premium Deficit that confirms that such Applicable Premium Deficit shall be applied toward such redemption;

 

  (2)   in the case of Legal Defeasance, the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an opinion of counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee confirming that, subject to customary assumptions and exclusions,

 

  (a)   the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or

 

  (b)   since the issuance of the notes, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law,

 

in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion of counsel in the United States shall confirm that, subject to customary assumptions and exclusions, the Holders will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

 

  (3)   in the case of Covenant Defeasance, the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an opinion of counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee confirming that, subject to customary assumptions and exclusions, the Holders will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

 

  (4)   no Default or Event of Default with respect to the outstanding notes (other than that resulting from borrowing funds to be applied to make such deposit or the granting of Liens in connection therewith) shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

 

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  (5)   such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under any other material agreement or instrument (other than the Indenture) to which, the Issuer is a party or by which the Issuer is bound (other than that resulting from borrowing funds to be applied to make such deposit and the granting of Liens in connection therewith);

 

  (6)   the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Issuer with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Issuer or others; and

 

  (7)   the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an opinion of counsel in the United States (which opinion of counsel may be subject to customary assumptions and exclusions) each stating that all conditions precedent provided for or relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge

 

The Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect, when either

 

  (1)   all notes theretofore authenticated and delivered, except lost stolen or destroyed notes which have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust, have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

  (2)   (a) all notes not theretofore delivered to such Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable by reason of the making of a notice of redemption or otherwise or will become due and payable within one year, and the Issuer has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with such Trustee as trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the Holders, cash in U.S. dollars, Government Securities, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient without consideration of any reinvestment of interest to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such notes not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation for principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest to the date of maturity or redemption; provided that, with respect to any redemption that requires the payment of the Applicable Premium, the amount deposited shall be sufficient for purpose of the Indenture to the extent that an amount is deposited with the Trustee equal to the Applicable Premium calculated as of the date of the notice of redemption, with any Applicable Premium Deficit only required to be deposited with the Trustee on or prior to the date of redemption. Any Applicable Premium Deficit shall be set forth in an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee simultaneously with the deposit of such Applicable Premium Deficit that confirms that such Applicable Premium Deficit shall be applied toward such redemption;

 

  (b)   no Default or Event of Default with respect to the outstanding notes (other than that resulting from borrowing funds to be applied to make such deposit or the granting of Liens in connection therewith) shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or shall occur as a result of such deposit and such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other instrument to which the Issuer is a party or by which the Issuer is bound (other than an instrument to be terminated contemporaneously with or prior to the borrowing of funds to be applied to make such deposit and the granting of Liens in connection therewith);

 

  (c)   the Issuer has paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by it under the Indenture; and

 

  (d)   the Issuer has delivered irrevocable instructions to the Trustee under the Indenture to apply the deposited money toward the payment of the notes at maturity or the redemption date, as the case may be.

 

In addition, the Issuer must deliver an Officers’ Certificate and an opinion of counsel to the Trustee stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been satisfied.

 

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Paying Agent and Registrar for the Notes

 

The Issuer will maintain one or more paying agents for the notes. The initial paying agent for the notes will be the Trustee.

 

The Issuer will also maintain a registrar. The initial registrar will be the Trustee. The registrar will maintain a register reflecting ownership of the notes outstanding from time to time and will make payments on and facilitate transfer of notes on behalf of the Issuer.

 

The Issuer may change the paying agents or the registrars without prior notice to the Holders. The Issuer may act as a paying agent or registrar.

 

Transfer and Exchange

 

A Holder may transfer or exchange notes in accordance with the Indenture. The registrar and the Trustee may require a Holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents and the Issuer may require a Holder to pay any taxes and fees required by law or permitted by the Indenture. The Issuer is not required to transfer or exchange any note selected for redemption. Also, the Issuer is not required to transfer or exchange any note for a period of 15 days before the mailing of a notice of redemption of notes to be redeemed.

 

The registered Holder of a note will be treated as the owner of the note for all purposes.

 

Amendment, Supplement and Waiver

 

Except as provided in the next four succeeding paragraphs, the Indenture and the notes issued thereunder may be amended or supplemented with the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the notes then outstanding and issued under the Indenture, including, without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, the notes, and any existing Default or Event of Default or compliance with any provision of the Indenture or the notes issued thereunder may be waived with the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding notes issued under the Indenture, other than notes beneficially owned by the Issuer or its Affiliates (including consents obtained in connection with a purchase of or tender offer or exchange offer for notes).

 

The Indenture will provide that, without the consent of each Holder affected, an amendment or waiver may not, with respect to the notes held by a non-consenting Holder:

 

  (1)   reduce the principal amount of notes,

 

  (2)   reduce the principal of or change the fixed maturity of any note or alter or waive the provisions with respect to the redemption of the notes (other than provisions relating to the covenants described above under the caption “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders”),

 

  (3)   reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest on any note,

 

  (4)   waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the notes issued under the Indenture, except a rescission of acceleration of the notes by the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration, or in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the Indenture which cannot be amended or modified without the consent of all Holders,

 

  (5)   make any note payable in money other than that stated in the notes,

 

  (6)   make any change in the provisions of the Indenture relating to waivers of past Defaults or the rights of Holders to receive payments of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the notes,

 

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  (7)   make any change in these amendment and waiver provisions, impair the right of any Holder to receive payment of principal of, or interest on such Holder’s notes on or after the due dates therefor or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to such Holder’s notes, or

 

  (8)   make any change to or modify the ranking of the notes that would adversely affect the Holders.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, without the consent of any Holder, the Issuer, and the Trustee may amend or supplement the Indenture or the notes:

 

  (1)   to cure any ambiguity, omission, mistake, defect or inconsistency;

 

  (2)   to provide for uncertificated notes in addition to or in place of certificated notes;

 

  (3)   to comply with the covenant relating to amalgamations, mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

  (4)   to provide for the assumption of the Issuer’s obligations to Holders;

 

  (5)   to make any change that would provide any additional rights or benefits to the Holders or that does not materially adversely affect the rights under the Indenture of any such Holder;

 

  (6)   to add covenants for the benefit of the Holders or to surrender any right or power conferred upon the Issuer;

 

  (7)   to comply with requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

  (8)   to evidence and provide for the acceptance and appointment under the Indenture of a successor Trustee pursuant to the requirements thereof;

 

  (9)   to provide for the issuance of exchange notes or private exchange notes, which are identical to exchange notes except that they are not freely transferable;

 

  (10)   to add guarantees of the notes under the Indenture in accordance with the terms of the Indenture; or

 

  (11)   to conform the text of the Indenture or the notes to any provision of the “Description of the Notes” to the extent that such provision in the “Description of the Notes” was intended to be a verbatim recitation of a provision of the Indenture or the notes as evidenced in an Officers’ Certificate.

 

The consent of the Holders is not necessary under the Indenture to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment. It is sufficient if such consent approves the substance of the proposed amendment.

 

Notices

 

Notices given by publication will be deemed given on the first date on which publication is made and notices given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, will be deemed given five calendar days after mailing.

 

Concerning the Trustee

 

The Indenture will contain certain limitations on the rights of the Trustee, should it become a creditor of the Issuer, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The Trustee will be permitted to engage in other transactions; however, if it acquires any conflicting interest it must eliminate such conflict within 90 days, apply to the Commission for permission to continue or resign.

 

The Indenture will provide that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes issued thereunder will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the Trustee, subject to certain exceptions. The Indenture will provide that in case an Event of Default shall occur (which shall not be cured), the Trustee will be required, in the exercise of its power, to use the degree of care of a prudent person in the conduct of his own affairs. Subject to such provisions, the

 

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Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request of any Holder of the notes, unless such Holder shall have offered to the Trustee security and indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.

 

Governing Law

 

The Indenture and the notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Certain Definitions

 

Set forth below are certain defined terms used in the Indenture. Reference is made to the Indenture for a full disclosure of all such terms, as well as any other capitalized terms used herein for which no definition is provided. For purposes of the Indenture, unless otherwise specifically indicated, the term “consolidated” with respect to any Person refers to such Person consolidated with its Restricted Subsidiaries, and excludes from such consolidation any Unrestricted Subsidiary as if such Unrestricted Subsidiary were not an Affiliate of such Person.

 

Acquired Indebtedness ” means, with respect to any specified Person,

 

  (1)   Indebtedness of any other Person existing at the time such other Person is amalgamated or merged with or into or became a Restricted Subsidiary of such specified Person, including, without limitation, Indebtedness incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of, such other Person merging with or into or becoming a Restricted Subsidiary of such specified Person, and

 

  (2)   Indebtedness secured by a Lien encumbering any asset acquired by such specified Person.

 

Affiliate ” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For purposes of this definition, “ control ” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “ controlling ,” “ controlled by ” and “ under common control with ”), as used with respect to any Person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

 

Aircraft Finance Subsidiary ” means any special purpose Subsidiary that facilitates the acquisition, ownership, leasing or financing of aircraft or any parts relating to aircraft, including any securitization financing in connection therewith.

 

Asset Sale ” means

 

  (1)   the sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, whether in a single transaction or a series of related transactions, of property or assets (including by way of a sale and leaseback) of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary (each referred to in this definition as a “disposition”), or

 

  (2)   the issuance or sale of Equity Interests of any Restricted Subsidiary, whether in a single transaction or a series of related transactions (other than preferred stock of Restricted Subsidiaries issued in compliance with the covenant described under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”) in each case, other than:

 

  (a)   (i) a disposition of Cash Equivalents or dispositions of any surplus, obsolete, damaged or worn out assets, or (ii) any disposition of inventory or goods held for sale or other assets in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (b)   the disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer in a manner permitted pursuant to the provisions described above under “—Certain Covenants—Amalgamation, Merger, Consolidation or Sale of All or Substantially All Assets” or any disposition that constitutes a Change of Control pursuant to the Indenture;

 

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  (c)   the making of any Restricted Payment or Permitted Investment that is permitted to be made, and is made, under the covenant described above under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (d)   any disposition of assets or issuance or sale of Equity Interests of any Restricted Subsidiary in any transaction or series of transactions with an aggregate Fair Market Value of less than $30.0 million;

 

  (e)   any disposition of property or assets or issuance of securities by a Restricted Subsidiary to the Issuer or by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary to a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (f)   to the extent allowable under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, any exchange of like property (excluding any boot thereon) for use in a Similar Business;

 

  (g)   the lease, assignment, sub-lease or license of any real or personal property, including any aircraft, and any disposition in accordance with the terms of such lease;

 

  (h)   any sale of Equity Interests in, or Indebtedness or other securities of, an Unrestricted Subsidiary or joint venture (with the exception of Investments in Unrestricted Subsidiaries acquired pursuant to clause (10) of the definition of Permitted Investments);

 

  (i)   foreclosures on assets;

 

  (j)   (i) sales of accounts receivable, or participations therein, in connection with the Credit Facilities or any Receivables Facility and (ii) the sale or discount of accounts receivable in connection with the compromise or collection thereof or in bankruptcy or similar proceeding;

 

  (k)   the surrender or waiver of contract rights or the settlement, release or surrender of contract, tort or other claim of any kind;

 

  (l)   the creation of a Lien;

 

  (m)   any financing transaction with respect to property built or acquired by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary after the Issue Date, including, without limitation, sale leasebacks and asset securitizations permitted by the Indenture;

 

  (n)   the lease, assignment, sublease, license or sublicense of any real or personal property that does not materially interfere with the ordinary conduct of the business of the Issuer or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries as determined by the Board of Directors or management of the Issuer;

 

  (o)   the transfers, conveyances or other dispositions of any assets resulting from any condemnation or eminent domain or that are subject to casualty proceedings; and

 

  (p)   the issuance of director’s qualifying shares and shares issued to foreign nationals as required by applicable law.

 

Board of Directors ” means, with respect to a Person, the board of directors of such Person or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Capital Stock ” means

 

  (1)   in the case of a corporation, corporate stock,

 

  (2)   in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock,

 

  (3)   in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership, membership interests (whether general or limited) or shares in the capital of a company, and

 

  (4)   any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person.

 

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Capitalized Lease Obligation ” means, at the time any determination thereof is to be made, the amount of the liability in respect of a capital lease that would at such time be required to be capitalized and reflected as a liability on a balance sheet (excluding the footnotes thereto) in accordance with GAAP.

 

Cash Equivalents ” means

 

  (1)   United States dollars,

 

  (2)   pounds sterling,

 

  (3)   (a) euro, or any national currency of any participating member state in the European Union,

 

  (b)   Canadian dollars, or

 

  (c)   in the case of any Foreign Subsidiary that is a Restricted Subsidiary, such local currencies held by them from time to time in the ordinary course of business,

 

  (4)   securities issued or directly and fully and unconditionally guaranteed or insured by the United States or Canadian government or any agency or instrumentality thereof the securities of which are unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation of such government with maturities of 24 months or less from the date of acquisition,

 

  (5)   certificates of deposit, time deposits and eurodollar time deposits with maturities of one year or less from the date of acquisition, bankers’ acceptances with maturities not exceeding one year and overnight bank deposits, in each case with any commercial bank having capital and surplus in excess of $500.0 million,

 

  (6)   repurchase obligations for underlying securities of the types described in clauses (4) and (5) above entered into with any financial institution meeting the qualifications specified in clause (5) above,

 

  (7)   commercial paper rated at least P-2 by Moody’s or at least A-2 by S&P and in each case maturing within 12 months after the date of creation thereof,

 

  (8)   investment funds investing 95% of their assets in securities of the types described in clauses (1) through (7) above,

 

  (9)   readily marketable direct obligations issued by any state of the United States of America or any political subdivision thereof or any Province of Canada having one of the two highest rating categories obtainable from either Moody’s or S&P with maturities of 24 months or less from the date of acquisition and

 

  (10)   Indebtedness or preferred stock issued by Persons with a rating of “A” or higher from S&P or “A2” or higher from Moody’s with maturities of 12 months or less from the date of acquisition.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, Cash Equivalents shall include amounts denominated in currencies other than those set forth in clauses (1) through (3) above; provided that such amounts are converted into any currency listed in clauses (1) through (3) above as promptly as practicable and in any event within ten Business Days following the receipt of such amounts.

 

Change of Control ” means:

 

  (1)   any “ person ” or “ group ” (as such terms are used in Sections 13(d) and 14(d) of the Exchange Act, other than one or more Permitted Holders, is or becomes the beneficial owner (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act), directly or indirectly, of Voting Stock representing 50% or more of the voting power of the total outstanding Voting Stock of the Issuer;

 

  (2)  

(a) all or substantially all of the assets of the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, are sold or otherwise transferred to any Person other than a Wholly-Owned Restricted Subsidiary or one or more Permitted Holders or (b) the Issuer amalgamates, consolidates or merges with or into

 

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another Person or any Person consolidates, amalgamates or merges with or into the Issuer, in either case under this clause (2), in one transaction or a series of related transactions in which immediately after the consummation thereof Persons beneficially owning (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act) Voting Stock representing in the aggregate a majority of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of the Issuer, immediately prior to such consummation do not beneficially own (as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act) Voting Stock representing a majority of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of the Issuer, or the applicable surviving or transferee Person; provided that this clause shall not apply (i) in the case where immediately after the consummation of the transactions Permitted Holders beneficially own Voting Stock representing in the aggregate a majority of the total voting power of the Issuer, or the applicable surviving or transferee Person or (ii) to an amalgamation or a merger of the Issuer with or into (x) a corporation, limited liability company or partnership or (y) a wholly-owned subsidiary of a corporation, limited liability company or partnership that, in either case, immediately following the transaction or series of transactions, has no Person or group (other than Permitted Holders), which beneficially owns Voting Stock representing 50% or more of the voting power of the total outstanding Voting Stock of such entity and, in the case of clause (y), the parent of such wholly-owned subsidiary guarantees the Issuer’s obligations under the notes and the Indenture; or

 

  (3)   the Issuer shall adopt a plan of liquidation or dissolution or any such plan shall be approved by the shareholders of the Issuer.

 

For purposes of this definition, if the Issuer becomes a direct or indirect Subsidiary of a holding company, such holding company shall not itself be considered a Person or group for purposes of clauses (1) and (2) above; provided that (a) such holding company beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 100% of the Capital Stock of the Issuer and (b) upon completion of such transaction, no Person or group (other than one or more Permitted Holders) beneficially owns 50% or greater of the voting power of the total outstanding voting stock of such holding company.

 

Change of Control Triggering Event ” means (1) if the notes have an Investment Grade Rating from at least two Rating Agencies at the time of the applicable Change of Control, the occurrence of both (i) a Change of Control and (ii) a Rating Decline, and (2) if the notes do not have an Investment Grade Rating at the time of the applicable Change of Control from at least two Rating Agencies, the occurrence of a Change of Control.

 

Consolidated Depreciation and Amortization Expense ” means with respect to any Person for any period, the total amount of depreciation and amortization expense, including any amortization of deferred financing fees, amortization in relation to terminated Hedging Obligations and amortization of net lease discounts and lease incentives, of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period on a consolidated basis and otherwise determined in accordance with GAAP.

 

Consolidated Interest Expense ” means, with respect to any Person for any period, the sum, without duplication, of:

 

  (a)   consolidated interest expense of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, to the extent such expense was deducted in computing Consolidated Net Income (including amortization of original issue discount resulting from the issuance of Indebtedness at less than par, non-cash interest payments (but excluding any non-cash interest expense attributable to the movement in the mark to market valuation of or hedge ineffectiveness expenses of Hedging Obligations or other derivative instruments pursuant to Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 133—“Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” and excluding non-cash interest expense attributable to the amortization of gains or losses resulting from the termination prior to the Issue Date of Hedging Obligations), the interest component of Capitalized Lease Obligations and net payments, if any, pursuant to interest rate Hedging Obligations, and excluding amortization of deferred financing fees and any expensing of other financing fees), and

 

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  (b)   consolidated capitalized interest of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, whether paid or accrued less

 

  (c)   interest income for such period.

 

Consolidated Net Income ” means, with respect to any Person for any period, the aggregate of the Net Income, of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period, on a consolidated basis, and otherwise determined in accordance with GAAP; provided , however , that

 

  (1)   any net after-tax extraordinary, non-recurring or unusual gains or losses (less all fees and expenses relating thereto) or expenses (including, without limitation, relating to severance, relocation and new product introductions) shall be excluded,

 

  (2)   the Net Income for such period shall not include the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principles during such period,

 

  (3)   any net after-tax income (loss) from disposed or discontinued operations and any net after-tax gains or losses on disposal of disposed or discontinued operations shall be excluded,

 

  (4)   any net after-tax gains or losses (less all fees and expenses relating thereto) attributable to asset dispositions other than in the ordinary course of business, as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors or management of the Issuer, shall be excluded,

 

  (5)   the Net Income for such period of any Person that is not a Subsidiary, or is an Unrestricted Subsidiary, or that is accounted for by the equity method of accounting, shall be excluded; provided that Consolidated Net Income of the Issuer shall be increased by the amount of dividends or distributions or other payments that are actually paid in cash (or to the extent converted into cash) to the referent Person or a Restricted Subsidiary thereof in respect of such period,

 

  (6)   solely for the purpose of determining the amount available for Restricted Payments under clause (c)(1) of the first paragraph of “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments,” the Net Income for such period of any Restricted Subsidiary shall be excluded to the extent that the declaration or payment of dividends or similar distributions by that Restricted Subsidiary of its Net Income is not at the date of determination wholly permitted without any prior governmental approval (which has not been obtained other than pursuant to customary filings) or, directly or indirectly, by the operation of the terms of its charter or any agreement, instrument, judgment, decree, order, statute, rule, or governmental regulation applicable to that Restricted Subsidiary or its shareholders, unless such restriction with respect to the payment of dividends or in similar distributions has been legally waived; provided that Consolidated Net Income of the Issuer will be increased by the amount of dividends or other distributions or other payments actually paid in cash (or to the extent converted into cash) to the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary thereof in respect of such period, to the extent not already included therein,

 

  (7)   the effects of adjustments resulting from the application of purchase accounting in relation to any acquisition that is consummated after April 4, 2012, net of taxes, shall be excluded,

 

  (8)   any net after-tax income (loss) from the early extinguishment of Indebtedness or Hedging Obligations or other derivative instruments shall be excluded,

 

  (9)   any impairment charge or asset write-off pursuant to Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 142 and No. 144 and the amortization of intangibles arising pursuant to No. 141 shall be excluded,

 

  (10)   any non-cash compensation expense recorded from grants of stock appreciation or similar rights, stock options or other rights to officers, directors or employees shall be excluded, and

 

  (11)   unrealized gains or losses relating to Hedging Obligations and mark-to-market of Indebtedness denominated in foreign currencies shall be excluded.

 

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Notwithstanding the foregoing, for the purpose of the covenant described under “Certain Covenants— Limitation on Restricted Payments” only (other than clause (c)(4) thereof), there shall be excluded from Consolidated Net Income any income arising from any sale or other disposition of Restricted Investments made by the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries, any repurchases and redemptions of Restricted Investments from the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries, any repayments of loans and advances which constitute Restricted Investments by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary, any sale of the stock of an Unrestricted Subsidiary or any distribution or dividend from an Unrestricted Subsidiary, in each case only to the extent such amounts increase the amount of Restricted Payments permitted under such covenant pursuant to clause (c)(4) thereof.

 

Consolidated Tangible Assets ” at any date means the total assets of the Issuer and its Subsidiaries reported on the most recently prepared consolidated balance sheet of the Issuer filed with the SEC or delivered to the Trustee as of the end of a fiscal quarter, less all assets shown on such consolidated balance sheet that are classified and accounted for as intangible assets of the Issuer or any of its Subsidiaries or that otherwise would be considered intangible assets under generally accepted accounting principles, including, without limitation, franchises, patents and patent applications, trademarks, brand names, unamortized debt discount and goodwill.

 

Contingent Obligations ” means, with respect to any Person, any obligation of such Person guaranteeing any leases, dividends or other obligations that do not constitute Indebtedness (“ primary obligations ”) of any other Person (the “ primary obligor ”) in any manner, whether directly or indirectly, including, without limitation, any obligation of such Person, whether or not contingent,

 

  (1)   to purchase any such primary obligation or any property constituting direct or indirect security therefor,

 

  (2)   to advance or supply funds

 

  (a)   for the purchase or payment of any such primary obligation or

 

  (b)   to maintain working capital or equity capital of the primary obligor or otherwise to maintain the net worth or solvency of the primary obligor, or

 

  (3)   to purchase property, securities or services primarily for the purpose of assuring the owner of any such primary obligation of the ability of the primary obligor to make payment of such primary obligation against loss in respect thereof.

 

Credit Facilities ” means one or more debt facilities, commercial paper facilities, credit agreements, indentures or other agreements, in each case with banks or other institutional lenders, purchasers, investors, trustees or agents providing for revolving credit loans, term loans, receivables financing, including through the sale of receivables to such lenders or to special purpose entities formed to borrow from such lenders against receivables, letters of credit or other extensions of credit or other indebtedness, in each case including any notes, guarantees, collateral documents, instruments and agreements executed in connection therewith, and any amendments, supplements, modifications, extensions, renewals, restatements or refundings thereof and any debt facilities, commercial paper facilities, credit agreements, indentures or other agreements, in each case with banks or other institutional lenders, purchasers, investors, trustees or agents that replace, refund or refinance any part of the loans, notes, other credit facilities or commitments thereunder, including any such replacement, refunding or refinancing facility or indenture that increases the amount borrowable thereunder or alters the maturity thereof.

 

Default ” means any event that is, or with the passage of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Designated Noncash Consideration ” means the Fair Market Value of noncash consideration received by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary in connection with an Asset Sale that is so designated as Designated Noncash Consideration pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate, setting forth the general basis of such valuation, executed by a senior vice president or the principal financial officer of the Issuer, less the amount of cash or Cash Equivalents received in connection with a subsequent sale of such Designated Noncash Consideration.

 

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Designated Preferred Stock ” means preferred shares of the Issuer (in each case other than Disqualified Stock) that is issued for cash (other than to a Restricted Subsidiary) and is so designated as Designated Preferred Stock, pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate executed by a senior vice president or the principal financial officer of the Issuer on the issuance date thereof, the cash proceeds of which are excluded from the calculation set forth in clause (c) of the first paragraph of the “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments” covenant.

 

Disqualified Stock ” means, with respect to any Person, any Capital Stock of such Person which, by its terms, or by the terms of any security into which it is convertible or for which it is putable or exchangeable, or upon the happening of any event, matures or is mandatorily redeemable, other than as a result of a change of control or asset sale, pursuant to a sinking fund obligation or otherwise, or is redeemable at the option of the holder thereof, other than as a result of a change of control or asset sale, in whole or in part, in each case prior to the date 91 days after the earlier of the maturity date of the notes or the date the notes are no longer outstanding; provided , however , that if such Capital Stock is issued to any plan for the benefit of employees of the Issuer or its Subsidiaries or by any such plan to such employees, such Capital Stock shall not constitute Disqualified Stock solely because it may be required to be repurchased by the Issuer or its Subsidiaries in order to satisfy applicable statutory or regulatory obligations.

 

EBITDA ” means, with respect to any Person for any period, the Consolidated Net Income of such Person for such period plus (without duplication)

 

  (a)   provision for taxes based on income or profits, plus franchise or similar taxes, of such Person for such period deducted in computing Consolidated Net Income, plus

 

  (b)   Consolidated Interest Expense (and other components of Fixed Charges to the extent changes in GAAP after the Issue Date result in such components reducing Consolidated Net Income) of such Person for such period to the extent the same was deducted in calculating such Consolidated Net Income, plus

 

  (c)   Consolidated Depreciation and Amortization Expense of such Person for such period to the extent such depreciation and amortization were deducted in computing Consolidated Net Income, plus

 

  (d)   any expenses or charges related to any Equity Offering, Permitted Investment, acquisition, disposition, recapitalization or Indebtedness permitted to be incurred by the Indenture (whether or not successful), including such fees, expenses or charges related to the offering of the notes and the Credit Facilities, and deducted in computing Consolidated Net Income, plus

 

  (e)   the amount of any restructuring charges, integration costs or other business optimization expenses or costs deducted in such period in computing Consolidated Net Income, including any one-time costs incurred in connection with acquisitions after the Issue Date, plus

 

  (f)   any other non-cash charges reducing Consolidated Net Income for such period, excluding any such charge that represents an accrual or reserve for a cash expenditure for a future period, plus

 

  (g)   the amount of any non-controlling interest expense deducted in calculating Consolidated Net Income (less the amount of any cash dividends paid to the holders of such minority interests), plus

 

  (h)   any net loss (or minus any gain) resulting from currency exchange risk Hedging Obligations, plus

 

  (i)   foreign exchange loss (or minus any gain) on debt, plus

 

  (j)   expenses related to the implementation of an enterprise resource planning system, less

 

  (k)   non-cash items increasing Consolidated Net Income of such Person for such period, excluding any items which represent the reversal of any accrual of, or cash reserve for, anticipated cash charges in any prior period.

 

EMU ” means economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

 

Equity Interests ” means Capital Stock and all warrants, options or other rights to acquire Capital Stock, but excluding any debt security that is convertible into, or exchangeable for, Capital Stock.

 

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Equity Offering ” means any public or private sale of common shares or preferred shares of the Issuer (excluding Disqualified Stock), other than

 

  (a)   public offerings with respect to the Issuer’s common stock registered on Form S-8;

 

  (b)   any such public or private sale that constitutes an Excluded Contribution; and

 

  (c)   any sales to the Issuer or any of its Subsidiaries.

 

euro ” means the single currency of participating member states of the EMU.

 

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

Excluded Contribution ” means net cash proceeds, marketable securities or Qualified Proceeds received by the Issuer from

 

  (a)   contributions to its common equity capital, and

 

  (b)   the sale (other than to a Subsidiary of the Issuer or to any management equity plan or stock option plan or any other management or employee benefit plan or agreement of the Issuer) of Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock and Designated Preferred Stock) of the Issuer,

 

in each case designated as Excluded Contributions pursuant to an officers’ certificate executed by a senior vice president or the principal financial officer of the Issuer on or prior to the date such capital contributions are made or the date such Equity Interests are sold, as the case may be, which are excluded from the calculation set forth in clause (c) of the first paragraph under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments.”

 

Existing Indebtedness ” means Indebtedness of the Issuer or the Restricted Subsidiaries in existence on the Issue Date, plus interest accruing thereon.

 

Fair Market Value ” means the value that would be paid by a willing buyer to an unaffiliated willing seller in a transaction not involving distress or necessity of either party, determined in good faith by the chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief accounting officer or controller of the Issuer or the Restricted Subsidiary, which determination will be conclusive (unless otherwise provided in the indenture).

 

Fitch ” means Fitch, Inc.

 

Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio ” means, with respect to any Person for any period, the ratio of EBITDA of such Person for such period to the Fixed Charges of such Person for such period. In the event that the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary incurs, assumes, guarantees, redeems, retires or extinguishes any Indebtedness (other than reductions in amounts outstanding under revolving facilities unless accompanied by a corresponding termination of commitment) or issues or redeems Disqualified Stock or preferred stock subsequent to the commencement of the period for which the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is being calculated but prior to the event for which the calculation of the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is made (the “ Calculation Date ”), then the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio shall be calculated giving pro forma effect to such incurrence, assumption, guarantee or redemption, retirement or extinguishment of Indebtedness, or such issuance or redemption of Disqualified Stock or preferred stock, as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period.

 

For purposes of making the computation referred to above, Investments, acquisitions, dispositions, amalgamations, mergers, consolidations and disposed operations (as determined in accordance with GAAP) that have been made by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary during the four-quarter reference period or subsequent to such reference period and on or prior to or simultaneously with the Calculation Date shall be calculated on a pro forma basis assuming that all such Investments, acquisitions, dispositions, amalgamations, mergers,

 

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consolidations and disposed operations (and the change in any associated fixed charge obligations and the change in EBITDA resulting therefrom) had occurred on the first day of the four-quarter reference period. If since the beginning of such period any Person (that subsequently became a Restricted Subsidiary or was amalgamated or merged with or into the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary since the beginning of such period) shall have made any Investment, acquisition, disposition, amalgamation, merger, consolidation or disposed operation that would have required adjustment pursuant to this definition, then the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio shall be calculated giving pro forma effect thereto for such period as if such Investment, acquisition, disposition, amalgamation, merger, consolidation or disposed operation had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four-quarter period.

 

For purposes of this definition, whenever pro forma effect is to be given to a transaction, the pro forma calculations shall be made in good faith by a responsible financial or accounting officer of the Issuer (including pro forma expense and cost reductions, regardless of whether these cost savings could then be reflected in pro forma financial statements in accordance with Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act or any other regulation or policy of the SEC related thereto). If any Indebtedness bears a floating rate of interest and is being given pro forma effect, the interest on such Indebtedness shall be calculated as if the rate in effect on the Calculation Date had been the applicable rate for the entire period (taking into account any Hedging Obligations applicable to such Indebtedness). Interest on a Capitalized Lease Obligation shall be deemed to accrue at an interest rate reasonably determined by a responsible financial or accounting officer of the Issuer to be the rate of interest implicit in such Capitalized Lease Obligation in accordance with GAAP. For purposes of making the computation referred to above, interest on any Indebtedness under a revolving credit facility computed on a pro forma basis shall be computed based upon the average daily balance of such Indebtedness during the applicable period. Interest on Indebtedness that may optionally be determined at an interest rate based upon a factor of a prime or similar rate, a eurocurrency interbank offered rate, or other rate, shall be deemed to have been based upon the rate actually chosen, or, if none, then based upon such optional rate chosen as the Issuer may designate.

 

Fixed Charges ” means, with respect to any Person for any period, the sum of

 

  (a)   Consolidated Interest Expense,

 

  (b)   all cash dividend payments (excluding items eliminated in consolidation) on any series of preferred stock (including any Designated Preferred Stock) or any Refunding Capital Stock of such Person, and

 

  (c)   all cash dividend payments (excluding items eliminated in consolidation) on any series of Disqualified Stock.

 

Foreign Subsidiary ” means, with respect to any Person, any Restricted Subsidiary of such Person that is (i) a controlled foreign corporation within the meaning of Section 957 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (a “CFC”) or (ii) organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and all of the material assets of such Restricted Subsidiary consist of stock in one or more CFCs.

 

GAAP ” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States which are in effect on April 4, 2012. At any time after the Issue Date, the Issuer may elect to apply IFRS accounting principles in lieu of GAAP for purposes of calculations hereunder and, upon any such election, references herein to GAAP shall thereafter be construed to mean IFRS (except as otherwise provided in the indenture); provided that any calculation or determination in the Indenture that requires the application of GAAP for periods that include fiscal quarters ended prior to the Issuer’s election to apply IFRS shall remain as previously calculated or determined in accordance with GAAP. The Issuer shall give notice of any such election made in accordance with this definition to the Trustee and the Holders of notes.

 

Government Securities ” means securities that are

 

  (a)   direct obligations of the United States of America for the timely payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged, or

 

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  (b)   obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America,

 

which, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuers thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act), as custodian with respect to any such Government Securities or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Government Securities held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Government Securities or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Government Securities evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

guarantee ” means a guarantee (other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection in the ordinary course of business), direct or indirect, in any manner (including, without limitation, letters of credit and reimbursement agreements in respect thereof), of all or any part of any Indebtedness or other obligations.

 

Guarantor ” means any Person that executes a Note Guarantee in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture and its respective successors and assigns.

 

Hedging Obligations ” means, with respect to any Person, the obligations of such Person under

 

  (a)   currency exchange, interest rate or commodity swap agreements, currency exchange, interest rate or commodity cap agreements and currency exchange, interest rate or commodity collar agreements; and

 

  (b)   other agreements or arrangements designed to protect such Person against fluctuations in currency exchange, interest rates or commodity prices.

 

Holder ” means a holder of the notes.

 

Indebtedness ” means, with respect to any Person,

 

  (1)   any indebtedness (including principal and premium) of such Person, whether or not contingent

 

  (a)   in respect of borrowed money,

 

  (b)   evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments or letters of credit or bankers’ acceptances (or, without double counting, reimbursement agreements in respect thereof),

 

  (c)   representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property (including Capitalized Lease Obligations), except (i) any such balance that constitutes a trade payable or similar obligation to a trade creditor, in each case accrued in the ordinary course of business and (ii) any earn-out obligations until such obligation becomes a liability on the balance sheet of such Person in accordance with GAAP, or

 

  (d)   representing any Hedging Obligations,

 

if and to the extent that any of the foregoing Indebtedness (other than letters of credit and Hedging Obligations) would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet (excluding the footnotes thereto) of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP,

 

  (2)   to the extent not otherwise included, any obligation by such Person to be liable for, or to pay, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise, on the Indebtedness of another Person, other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection in the ordinary course of business, and

 

  (3)   to the extent not otherwise included, Indebtedness of another Person secured by a Lien on any asset owned by such Person, whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by such Person;

 

provided , however , that Contingent Obligations shall be deemed not to constitute Indebtedness; and obligations under or in respect of Receivables Facilities shall not be deemed to constitute Indebtedness; and the term

 

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“Indebtedness” shall not include any lease, concession or license of property (or guarantee thereof) that would be considered an operating lease under GAAP as in effect on the Issue Date; provided , further , however , that for the avoidance of doubt, Indebtedness of any Person at any time under a revolving credit or similar facility shall be the total amount of funds borrowed and then outstanding.

 

Independent Financial Advisor ” means an accounting, appraisal, investment banking firm or consultant to Persons engaged in Similar Businesses of nationally recognized standing that is, in the good faith judgment of the Issuer, qualified to perform the task for which it has been engaged.

 

Investment Grade Rating ” means a rating equal to or higher than (i) Baa3 (or the equivalent) by Moody’s, (ii) BBB- (or the equivalent) by S&P and (iii) BBB- (or the equivalent) by Fitch, or an equivalent rating by any other Rating Agency substituted for Moody’s, S&P or Fitch.

 

Investments ” means, with respect to any Person, all investments by such Person in other Persons (including Affiliates) in the form of loans (including guarantees), advances or capital contributions (excluding accounts receivable, trade credit, advances to customers, commission, travel, moving and similar advances to officers, directors and employees), purchases or other acquisitions for consideration of Indebtedness, Equity Interests or other securities issued by any other Person and investments that are required by GAAP to be classified on the balance sheet (excluding the footnotes) of the Issuer in the same manner as the other investments included in this definition to the extent such transactions involve the transfer of cash or other property. For purposes of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiary” and the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments,”

 

  (1)   “Investments” shall include the portion (proportionate to the Issuer’s equity interest in such Subsidiary) of the Fair Market Value of the net assets of a Subsidiary of the Issuer at the time that such Subsidiary is designated an Unrestricted Subsidiary; provided , however , that upon a redesignation of such Subsidiary as a Restricted Subsidiary, the Issuer shall be deemed to continue to have a permanent “Investment” in an Unrestricted Subsidiary in an amount (if positive) equal to

 

  (x) the Issuer’s “Investment” in such Subsidiary at the time of such redesignation less

 

  (y) the portion (proportionate to the Issuer’s equity interest in such Subsidiary) of the Fair Market Value of the net assets of such Subsidiary at the time of such redesignation; and

 

  (2)   any property transferred to or from an Unrestricted Subsidiary shall be valued at its Fair Market Value at the time of such transfer, in each case as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer.

 

Issue Date ” means             , 2017.

 

Lien ” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such asset, whether or not filed, recorded or otherwise perfected under applicable law, including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof, any option or other agreement to sell or give a security interest in and any filing of or agreement to give any financing statement under the Uniform Commercial Code (or equivalent statutes) of any jurisdiction; provided that in no event shall an operating lease be deemed to constitute a Lien.

 

Management Group ” means at any time, the Chairman of the Board, any President, any Executive Vice President or Vice President, any Managing Director, any Treasurer and any Secretary or other executive officer of the Issuer or any Subsidiary of the Issuer at such time.

 

Moody’s ” means Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.

 

Net Income ” means, with respect to any Person, the net income (loss) of such Person, determined in accordance with GAAP and before any reduction in respect of preferred stock dividends.

 

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Net Proceeds ” means the aggregate cash proceeds received by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary in respect of any Asset Sale, including, without limitation, any cash received upon the sale or other disposition of any Designated Noncash Consideration received in any Asset Sale, net of the direct costs relating to such Asset Sale and the sale or disposition of such Designated Noncash Consideration, including, without limitation, legal, accounting and investment banking fees, and brokerage and sales commissions, any relocation expenses incurred as a result thereof, taxes paid or payable as a result thereof (after taking into account any available tax credits or deductions and any tax sharing arrangements), amounts required to be applied to the repayment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on Indebtedness secured by a Lien permitted under the Indenture required (other than required by clause (1) of the second paragraph of “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales”) to be paid as a result of such transaction and any deduction of appropriate amounts to be provided by the Issuer as a reserve in accordance with GAAP against any liabilities associated with the asset disposed of in such transaction and retained by the Issuer after such sale or other disposition thereof, including, without limitation, pension and other post-employment benefit liabilities and liabilities related to environmental matters or against any indemnification obligations associated with such transaction.

 

Obligations ” means any principal, interest (including any interest accruing subsequent to the filing of a petition in bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding at the rate provided for in the documentation with respect thereto, whether or not such interest is an allowed claim under applicable state, federal or foreign law), penalties, fees, indemnifications, reimbursements (including, without limitation, reimbursement obligations with respect to letters of credit and banker’s acceptances), damages and other liabilities, and guarantees of payment of such principal, interest, penalties, fees, indemnifications, reimbursements, damages and other liabilities, payable under the documentation governing any Indebtedness.

 

Officer ” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President or Vice President, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Issuer.

 

Officers’ Certificate ” means a certificate signed on behalf of the Issuer by two Officers of the Issuer, one of whom must be the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer, the treasurer or the principal accounting officer of the Issuer that meets the requirements set forth in the Indenture.

 

Permitted Asset Swap ” means the substantially concurrent purchase and sale or exchange of Related Business Assets or a combination of Related Business Assets and cash or Cash Equivalents between the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries and another Person; provided that any cash or Cash Equivalents received must be applied in accordance with the provisions of “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders—Asset Sales.”

 

Permitted Holders ” means the collective reference to Marubeni Corporation, its Affiliates and the Management Group. Any Person or group whose acquisition of beneficial ownership constitutes a Change of Control in respect of which a Change of Control Offer is made in accordance with the requirements of the Indenture will thereafter, together with its Affiliates, constitute an additional Permitted Holder.

 

Permitted Investments ” means

 

  (1)   any Investment in the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (2)   any Investment in cash and Cash Equivalents;

 

  (3)   any Investment by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Issuer in a Person if as a result of such Investment:

 

  (a)   such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary; or

 

  (b)   such Person, in one transaction or a series of related transactions, is merged, consolidated or amalgamated with or into, or transfers or conveys substantially all of its assets to, or is liquidated into, the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

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  (4)   any Investment in securities or other assets not constituting cash or Cash Equivalents and received in connection with an Asset Sale made pursuant to the provisions of “—Repurchase at the Option of Holders —Asset Sales” or any other disposition of assets not constituting an Asset Sale;

 

  (5)   any Investment existing on the Issue Date;

 

  (6)   loans and advances to employees not in excess of $5.0 million outstanding at any one time, in the aggregate;

 

  (7)   any Investment acquired by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary:

 

  (a)   in exchange for any other Investment or accounts receivable held by the Issuer or any such Restricted Subsidiary in connection with or as a result of a bankruptcy, workout, reorganization or recapitalization of the Issuer of such other Investment or accounts receivable; or

 

  (b)   as a result of a foreclosure by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary with respect to any secured Investment or other transfer of title with respect to any secured Investment in default;

 

  (8)   any Investments in Hedging Obligations entered into in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (9)   loans to officers, directors and employees for business-related travel expenses, moving expenses and other similar expenses, in each case incurred in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (10)   any Investment having an aggregate Fair Market Value, taken together with all other Investments made pursuant to this clause (10) that are at that time outstanding (without giving effect to the sale of an Unrestricted Subsidiary to the extent the proceeds of such sale do not consist of cash and/ or marketable securities), not to exceed the greater of (x) $350.0 million and (y) 5.0% of Total Assets at the time of such Investment; provided , that the dollar amount of Investments made pursuant to this clause (10) may be reduced by the Fair Market Value of the proceeds received by the Issuer and/or its Restricted Subsidiaries from the subsequent sale, disposition or other transfer of such Investments (with the Fair Market Value of each Investment being measured at the time made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value and, for the avoidance of doubt, any return of capital with respect to an Investment reduces the Fair Market Value of such Investment then outstanding for the purpose of this clause (10) by the amount of such return of capital);

 

  (11)   Investments the payment for which consists of Equity Interests of the Issuer (exclusive of Disqualified Stock); provided , however , that such Equity Interests will not increase the amount available for Restricted Payments under clause (c) of the first paragraph under the covenant described in “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (12)   guarantees of Indebtedness permitted under the covenant described in “—Certain Covenants— Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (13)   any transaction to the extent it constitutes an investment that is permitted and made in accordance with the provisions of the second paragraph of the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Transactions with Affiliates”;

 

  (14)   Investments consisting of purchases and acquisitions of inventory, supplies, material or equipment or the licensing or contribution of intellectual property pursuant to joint marketing or similar arrangements;

 

  (15)   repurchases of the notes or other Indebtedness of the Issuer (other than Subordinated Indebtedness that is not Intercompany Subordinated Indebtedness);

 

  (16)   any Investments received in compromise or resolution of (A) obligations of trade creditors or customers that were incurred in the ordinary course of business of the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, including pursuant to any plan of reorganization or similar arrangement upon the bankruptcy or insolvency of any trade creditor or customer; or (B) litigation, arbitration or other disputes with Persons who are not Affiliates;

 

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  (17)   any Investment in a Person (other than the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary) pursuant to the terms of any agreements in effect on the Issue Date and any Investment that replaces, refinances or refunds an existing Investment; provided that the new Investment is in an amount that does not exceed the amount replaced, refinanced or refunded (after giving effect to write-downs or write-offs with respect to such Investment), and is made in the same Person as the Investment replaced, refinanced or refunded;

 

  (18)   endorsements for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (19)   Investments relating to any special purpose wholly-owned subsidiary of the Issuer organized in connection with a Receivables Facility that, in the good faith determination of the Board of Directors of the Issuer, are necessary or advisable to effect such Receivables Facility;

 

  (20)   Investments in a joint venture, when taken together with all other Investments made pursuant to this clause (20) that are at the time outstanding, not to exceed the greater of (x) $200.0 million and (y) 3.0% of Total Assets (with the Fair Market Value of each Investment being measured at the time made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value); and

 

  (21)   Investments in aviation assets, including debt Investments secured, directly or indirectly, by commercial jet aircraft or related property and including Investments in entities owning, financing or leasing aviation assets.

 

Permitted Jurisdiction ” means any of the United States, any state thereof, the District of Columbia, or any territory thereof, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Switzerland, Ireland, Singapore, or the Marshall Islands.

 

Permitted Liens ” means, with respect to any Person:

 

  (1)   pledges or deposits by such Person under workmen’s compensation laws, unemployment insurance laws or similar legislation, or good faith deposits in connection with bids, tenders, contracts (other than for the payment of Indebtedness) or leases to which such Person is a party, or deposits to secure public or statutory obligations of such Person or deposits of cash or U.S. government bonds to secure surety or appeal bonds to which such Person is a party, or deposits as security for contested taxes or import duties or for the payment of rent, in each case incurred in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (2)   Liens imposed by law, such as carriers’, warehousemen’s and mechanics’ Liens, in each case for sums not yet overdue for a period of more than 30 days or being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings or other Liens arising out of judgments or awards against such Person with respect to which such Person shall then be proceeding with an appeal or other proceedings for review;

 

  (3)   Liens for taxes, assessments or other governmental charges not yet overdue for a period of more than 30 days or payable or subject to penalties for nonpayment or which are being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings;

 

  (4)   Liens in favor of issuers of performance and surety bonds or bid bonds or with respect to other regulatory requirements or letters of credit issued pursuant to the request of and for the account of such Person in the ordinary course of its business;

 

  (5)   minor survey exceptions, minor encumbrances, easements or reservations of, or rights of others for, licenses, rights-of-way, sewers, electric lines, telegraph and telephone lines and other similar purposes, or zoning or other restrictions as to the use of real properties or Liens incidental, to the conduct of the business of such Person or to the ownership of its properties which were not incurred in connection with Indebtedness and which do not in the aggregate materially adversely affect the value of said properties or materially impair their use in the operation of the business of such Person as determined by the Board of Directors or management of the Issuer;

 

  (6)   Liens existing on the Issue Date;

 

  (7)  

Liens on property or shares of stock of a Person at the time such Person becomes a Subsidiary; provided , however , such Liens are not created or incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of,

 

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such other Person becoming such a subsidiary; provided , further , however , that such Liens may not extend to any other property owned by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (8)   Liens on property at the time the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary acquired the property, including any acquisition by means of an amalgamation or a merger or consolidation with or into the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary; provided , however , that such Liens are not created or incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of, such acquisition; provided , further , however , that the Liens may not extend to any other property owned by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (9)   Liens securing Indebtedness or other obligations of a Restricted Subsidiary owing to the Issuer or another Restricted Subsidiary permitted to be incurred in accordance with the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (10)   Liens securing Hedging Obligations so long as the related Indebtedness is, and is permitted to be under the Indenture, secured by a Lien;

 

  (11)   Liens on specific items of inventory of other goods and proceeds of any Person securing such Person’s obligations in respect of bankers’ acceptances issued or created for the account of such Person to facilitate the purchase, shipment or storage of such inventory or other goods;

 

  (12)   leases and subleases of real property granted to others in the ordinary course of business and which do not materially interfere with the ordinary conduct of the business of the Issuer or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries as determined by the Board of Directors or management of the Issuer;

 

  (13)   Liens arising from Uniform Commercial Code financing statement filings regarding operating leases entered into by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (14)   Liens in favor of the Issuer;

 

  (15)   Liens on equipment of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary granted in the ordinary course of business to the Issuer’s client at which such equipment is located;

 

  (16)   Liens on accounts receivable and related assets incurred in connection with a Receivables Facility;

 

  (17)   Liens to secure any refinancing, refunding, extension, renewal or replacement (or successive refinancing, refunding, extensions, renewals or replacements) as a whole, or in part, of any Indebtedness secured by any Lien referred to in clauses (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (14), (26) and (27); provided , however , that (x) such new Lien shall be limited to all or part of the same property that secured the original Lien (plus improvements on such property), (y) the Indebtedness secured by such Lien at such time is not increased to any amount greater than the sum of (A) the outstanding principal amount or, if greater, committed amount of the Indebtedness described under clauses (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (14), (26) and (27) at the time the original Lien became a Permitted Lien under the Indenture, and (B) an amount necessary to pay any fees and expenses, including premiums, related to such refinancing, refunding, extension, renewal or replacement and (z) the new Lien has no greater priority and the holders of the Indebtedness secured by such Lien have no greater intercreditor rights relative to the notes and Holders thereof than the original Liens and the related Indebtedness;

 

  (18)   other Liens either (a) securing obligations which obligations do not exceed the greater of $200.0 million or 3.0% of Total Assets, or (b) during a Suspension Period, securing obligations which obligations do not exceed 20.0% of Consolidated Tangible Assets at the time of incurrence and after giving effect to the incurrence of such obligations and the use of proceeds thereof, in each case in aggregate principal amount together with all other outstanding obligations secured by Liens incurred pursuant to this clause (18) subsequent to the Issue Date, including the Lien proposed to be incurred;

 

  (19)   Licenses or sublicenses in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (20)  

Liens securing judgments for the payment of money not constituting an Event of Default under clause (5) under the caption “Events of Default and Remedies” so long as such Liens are adequately bonded

 

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and any appropriate legal proceedings that may have been duly initiated for the review of such judgment have not been finally terminated or the period within which such proceedings may be initiated has not expired;

 

  (21)   Liens in favor of customs and revenue authorities arising as a matter of law to secure payment of customs duties in connection with the importation of goods in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (22)   Liens (i) of a collection bank arising under Section 4-210 of the Uniform Commercial Code, or any comparable or successor provision, on items in the course of collection, (ii) attaching to commodity trading accounts or other commodity brokerage accounts incurred in the ordinary course of business, and (iii) in favor of banking institutions arising as a matter of law encumbering deposits (including the right of set-off) and which are within the general parameters customary in the banking industry;

 

  (23)   Liens encumbering reasonable customary initial deposits and margin deposits and similar Liens attaching to commodity trading accounts or other brokerage accounts incurred in the ordinary course of business and not for speculative purposes;

 

  (24)   Liens that are contractual rights of set-off (i) relating to the establishment of depository relations with banks not given in connection with the issuance of Indebtedness, (ii) relating to pooled deposit or sweep accounts of the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to permit satisfaction of overdraft or similar obligations incurred in the ordinary course of business of the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries or (iii) relating to purchase orders and other agreements entered into with customers of the Issuer or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (25)   Liens arising out of conditional sale, title retention, consignment or similar arrangements for the sale or purchase of goods entered into by the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (26)   Liens securing Indebtedness permitted to be incurred pursuant to clause (4) of the second paragraph under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”; provided that Liens extend only to the assets so financed, purchased, constructed or improved; and

 

  (27)   Liens securing Indebtedness permitted to be incurred pursuant to clause (17) of the second paragraph under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock”; provided that Liens extend only to the assets so financed (and any improvements or accessions thereto) and any Capital Stock of any related Aircraft Finance Subsidiary.

 

For purposes of determining compliance with this definition, (A) Permitted Liens need not be incurred solely by reference to one category of Permitted Liens described above but are permitted to be incurred in part under any combination thereof and (B) in the event that a Lien (or any portion thereof) meets the criteria of one or more of the categories of Permitted Liens described above, the Issuer may, in its sole discretion, classify or reclassify such item of Permitted Liens (or any portion thereof) in any manner that complies with this definition and the Issuer may divide and classify a Lien in more than one of the types of Permitted Liens in one of the above clauses.

 

Person ” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, government or any agency or political subdivision thereof or any other entity.

 

preferred stock ” means any Equity Interest with preferential rights of payment of dividends or upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up.

 

Qualified Proceeds ” means assets that are used or useful in, or Capital Stock of any Person engaged in, a Similar Business; provided that the fair market value of any such assets or Capital Stock shall be determined by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Issuer in good faith.

 

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Rating Agencies ” means Fitch, Moody’s and S&P or if any of Fitch, Moody’s or S&P or all three shall not make a rating on the notes publicly available, a nationally recognized statistical rating agency or agencies, as the case may be, selected by the Issuer which shall be substituted for Fitch, Moody’s or S&P or all three, as the case may be.

 

Rating Decline ” shall be deemed to occur if on the 60th day following the occurrence of a Change of Control (1) if notes are then rated by three Rating Agencies, the rating of the notes by two or more of the Rating Agencies shall have been (i) withdrawn or (ii) downgraded to a rating below an Investment Grade Rating, or (2) if the notes are then rated by two or fewer Rating Agencies, the rating of the notes by either Rating Agency shall have been (i) withdrawn or (ii) downgraded to a rating below an Investment Grade Rating.

 

Receivables Facility ” means one or more receivables financing facilities, as amended from time to time, the Indebtedness of which is non-recourse (except for standard representations, warranties, covenants and indemnities made in connection with such facilities) to the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries pursuant to which the Issuer and/or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries sells its accounts receivable to a Person that is not a Restricted Subsidiary.

 

Receivables Fees ” means distributions or payments made directly or by means of discounts with respect to any participation interest issued or sold in connection with, and other fees paid to a Person that is not a Restricted Subsidiary in connection with, any Receivables Facility.

 

Related Business Assets ” means assets (other than cash or Cash Equivalents) used or useful in a Similar Business; provided that any assets received by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary in exchange for assets transferred by the Issuer or a Restricted Subsidiary shall not be deemed to be Related Business Assets if they consist of securities of a Person, unless upon receipt of the securities of such Person, such Person would become a Restricted Subsidiary.

 

Restricted Investment ” means an Investment other than a Permitted Investment.

 

Restricted Subsidiary ” means, at any time, any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Issuer (including any Foreign Subsidiary) that is not then an Unrestricted Subsidiary; provided , however , that upon the occurrence of an Unrestricted Subsidiary ceasing to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary, such Subsidiary shall be included in the definition of “Restricted Subsidiary.”

 

S&P ” means Standard and Poor’s Ratings Group.

 

Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933 and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

Significant Subsidiary ” means any Restricted Subsidiary that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the Issue Date.

 

Similar Business ” means any business conducted or proposed to be conducted by the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries on the date of the Indenture or any business that is similar, reasonably related, incidental or ancillary thereto.

 

Subordinated Indebtedness ” means (a) with respect to the Issuer, any Indebtedness of the Issuer which is by its terms subordinated in right of payment to the notes, and (b) with respect to any Guarantor, any Indebtedness of such Guarantor which is by its terms subordinated in right of payment to the Note Guarantee of such Guarantor.

 

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Subsidiary ” means, with respect to any Person,

 

  (1)   any corporation, association, or other business entity (other than a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity) of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time of determination owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person or a combination thereof; and

 

  (2)   any partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity of which

 

  (x)   more than 50% of the capital accounts, distribution rights, total equity and voting interests or general or limited partnership interests, as applicable, are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person or a combination thereof whether in the form of membership, general, special or limited partnership or otherwise, and

 

  (y)   such Person or any Restricted Subsidiary of such Person is a controlling general partner or otherwise controls such entity.

 

Total Assets ” means the total assets of the Issuer and the Restricted Subsidiaries, as shown on the most recent balance sheet of the Issuer for which internal financial statements are available immediately preceding the date on which any calculation of Total Assets is being made, with such pro forma adjustments for transactions consummated on or prior to or simultaneously with the date of the calculation as are appropriate and consistent with the pro forma adjustment provisions set forth in the definition of Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio.

 

Treasury Rate ” means, as of any redemption date, the weekly average rounded to the nearest 1/100th of a percentage point (for the most recently completed week for which such information is available as of the date that is two Business Days prior to the redemption date) of the yield to maturity of United States Treasury securities with a constant maturity (as compiled and published in the Federal Reserve Statistical Release H.15 with respect to each applicable day during such week or, if such Statistical Release is no longer published or available, any publicly available source of similar market data selected by the Issuer) most nearly equal to the period from the redemption date to                 , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes); provided , however , that if the period from the redemption date to                 , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes) is not equal to the constant maturity of a United States Treasury security for which such a yield is given, the Treasury Rate shall be obtained by linear interpolation (calculated to the nearest one-twelfth of a year) from the weekly average yields of United States Treasury securities for which such yields are given, except that if the period from the redemption date to                 , 2024 (three months prior to the maturity date of the notes) is less than one year, the weekly average yield on actually traded United States Treasury securities adjusted to a constant maturity of one year will be used.

 

Unrestricted Subsidiary ” means

 

  (1)   any Subsidiary of the Issuer which at the time of determination is an Unrestricted Subsidiary (as designated by the board of directors of the Issuer, as provided below); and

 

  (2)   any Subsidiary of an Unrestricted Subsidiary.

 

The Board of Directors of the Issuer may designate any Subsidiary of the Issuer (including any existing Subsidiary and any newly acquired or newly formed Subsidiary) to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary unless such Subsidiary or any of its Subsidiaries owns any Equity Interests or Indebtedness of, or owns or holds any Lien on, any property of, the Issuer or any Subsidiary of the Issuer (other than any Subsidiary of the Subsidiary to be so designated); provided that

 

  (a)  

any Unrestricted Subsidiary must be an entity of which shares of the Capital Stock or other Equity Interests (including partnership interests) entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes that may

 

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be cast by all shares or Equity Interests having ordinary voting power for the election of directors or other governing body are owned, directly or indirectly, by the Issuer,

 

  (b)   such designation complies with the covenants described under “—Certain Covenants— Limitation on Restricted Payments” and

 

  (c)   each of

 

  (1) the Subsidiary to be so designated and

 

  (2) its Subsidiaries has not at the time of designation, and does not thereafter, create, incur, issue, assume, guarantee or otherwise become directly or indirectly liable with respect to any Indebtedness pursuant to which the lender has recourse to any of the assets of the Issuer or any Restricted Subsidiary.

 

The Board of Directors of the Issuer may designate any Unrestricted Subsidiary to be a Restricted Subsidiary; provided that, immediately after giving effect to such designation no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing and either

 

  (1)   the Issuer could incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio test described in the first sentence under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Incurrence of Indebtedness and Issuance of Disqualified Stock and Preferred Stock” or

 

  (2)   the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries would be not less than such ratio for the Issuer and its Restricted Subsidiaries immediately prior to such designation, in each case on a pro forma basis taking into account such designation.

 

Any such designation by the Board of Directors of the Issuer shall be notified by the Issuer to the Trustee by promptly filing with the Trustee a copy of the board resolution giving effect to such designation and an Officers’ Certificate certifying that such designation complied with the foregoing provisions.

 

Voting Stock ” of any Person as of any date means the Capital Stock of such Person that is at the time entitled to vote in the election of the Board of Directors of such Person.

 

Weighted Average Life to Maturity ” means, when applied to any Indebtedness, Disqualified Stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, at any date, the quotient obtained by dividing

 

  (1)   the sum of the products of the number of years from the date of determination to the date of each successive scheduled principal payment of such Indebtedness or redemption or similar payment with respect to such Disqualified Stock or preferred stock multiplied by the amount of such payment, by

 

  (2)   the sum of all such payments.

 

Wholly-Owned Restricted Subsidiary ” means any Wholly-Owned Subsidiary that is a Restricted Subsidiary.

 

Wholly-Owned Subsidiary ” of any Person means a Subsidiary of such Person, 100% of the outstanding Capital Stock or other ownership interests of which (other than directors’ qualifying shares) shall at the time be owned by such Person or by one or more Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

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BOOK-ENTRY SETTLEMENT AND CLEARANCE

 

Except as set forth below, all of the notes will be issued in registered, global form without interest coupons in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof (the “Global Notes”). Notes will be issued at the closing of this offering only against payment in immediately available funds.

 

Global Notes will be deposited upon issuance with the Trustee as custodian for DTC in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and registered in the name of DTC or its nominee, in each case for credit to an account of a direct or indirect participant in DTC as described below.

 

Except as set forth below, Global Notes may be transferred only to another nominee of DTC or to a successor of DTC or its nominee, in whole and not in part. Except in the limited circumstances described below, beneficial interests in Global Notes may not be exchanged for notes in certificated form and owners of beneficial interests in Global Notes will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form. See “—Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes.”

 

Transfers of beneficial interests in Global Notes will be subject to the applicable rules and procedures of DTC and its direct or indirect participants (including the Euroclear System (“Euroclear”) and Clearstream Banking, S.A. (“Clearstream”) (as indirect participants in DTC)), which may change from time to time.

 

Depository Procedures

 

The following description of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream is provided solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of the respective settlement systems and are subject to changes by them. We take no responsibility for these operations and procedures and urge investors to contact the system or their participants directly to discuss these matters.

 

DTC has advised us that DTC is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC was created to hold securities for its participating organizations (collectively, the “Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in those securities between Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of its Participants. The Participants include securities brokers and dealers (including the underwriters), banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. Access to DTC’s system is also available to other entities such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Participant, either directly or indirectly (collectively, the “Indirect Participants”). Persons who are not Participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through the Participants or the Indirect Participants. The ownership interests in, and transfers of ownership interests in, each security held by or on behalf of DTC are recorded on the records of the Participants and Indirect Participants.

 

DTC has also advised us that, pursuant to procedures established by it:

 

  (1)   upon deposit of the Global Notes, DTC will credit the accounts of Participants designated by the underwriters with portions of the principal amount of the Global Notes; and

 

  (2)   ownership of these interests in Global Notes will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership of these interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to the Participants) or by the Participants and the Indirect Participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interests in Global Notes).

 

Investors in Global Notes who are Participants in DTC’s system may hold their interests therein directly through DTC. Investors in Global Notes who are not Participants may hold their interests therein indirectly through organizations (including Euroclear and Clearstream) that are Participants in DTC. All interests in a Global Note may be subject to the procedures and requirements of DTC. Euroclear and Clearstream will hold

 

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interests in Global Notes on behalf of their participants through customers’ securities accounts in their respective names on the books of their respective depositories, which are Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of Euroclear, and Citibank, N.A., as operator of Clearstream which in turn hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC. Interests in a Global Note held through Euroclear or Clearstream may be subject to the procedures and requirements of those systems (as well as to the procedures and requirements of DTC). The laws of some states require that certain persons take physical delivery in definitive form of securities that they own and the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Note to Persons that are subject to those requirements will be limited to that extent. Because DTC can act only on behalf of Participants, which in turn act on behalf of Indirect Participants, the ability of a person having beneficial interests in a Global Note to pledge those interests to Persons that do not participate in the DTC system, or otherwise take actions in respect of those interests, may be affected by the lack of a physical certificate evidencing those interests.

 

Except as described below, owners of an interest in Global Notes will not have notes registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of definitive notes in registered certificated form (“Certificated Notes”) and will not be considered the registered owners or “Holders” thereof under the indenture governing the notes for any purpose.

 

Payments in respect of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on a Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be payable to DTC in its capacity as the registered Holder under the indenture governing the notes. Under the terms of the indenture governing the notes, the Issuer and the Trustee will treat the Persons in whose names notes, including Global Notes, are registered as the owners of such notes for the purpose of receiving payments and for all other purposes. Consequently, neither the Issuer, the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee has or will have any responsibility or liability for:

 

  (1)   any aspect of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in Global Notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to the beneficial ownership interests in Global Notes; or

 

  (2)   any other matter relating to the actions and practices of DTC or any of its Participants or Indirect Participants.

 

DTC has advised us that its current practice, upon receipt of any payment in respect of securities such as the notes (including principal and interest), is to credit the accounts of the relevant Participants with the payment on the payment date unless DTC has reason to believe it will not receive payment on that payment date. Each relevant Participant is credited with an amount proportionate to its beneficial ownership of an interest in the principal amount of the relevant security as shown on the records of DTC. Payments by the Participants and the Indirect Participants to the beneficial owners of notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices and will be the responsibility of the Participants or the Indirect Participants and will not be the responsibility of DTC, the Trustee or the Issuer. Neither the Issuer nor the Trustee will be liable for any delay by DTC or any of its Participants in identifying the beneficial owners of any notes, and the Issuer and the Trustee may conclusively rely on and will be protected in relying on instructions from DTC or its nominee for all purposes.

 

Transfers between Participants in DTC will be effected in accordance with DTC’s procedures, and will be settled in same-day funds and transfers between participants in Euroclear and Clearstream will be effected in accordance with their respective rules and operating procedures.

 

Cross-market transfers between the Participants, on the one hand, and Euroclear or Clearstream participants, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by its respective depositary; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (Brussels time) of such

 

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system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its respective depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the relevant Global Note from DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day funds settlement applicable to DTC. Euroclear participants and Clearstream participants may not deliver instructions directly to the depositories for Euroclear or Clearstream.

 

DTC has advised us that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a holder of the notes only at the direction of one or more Participants to whose account DTC has credited the interests in the Global Notes and only in respect of the portion of the aggregate principal amount of the notes as to which that Participant or those Participants has or have given the relevant direction. However, if there is an Event of Default under the notes, DTC reserves the right to exchange the Global Notes for legended notes in certificated form, and to distribute those notes to its Participants.

 

Although DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream have agreed to the foregoing procedures in order to facilitate transfers of interests in Global Notes among Participants, they are under no obligation to perform those procedures, and may discontinue or change those procedures at any time. Neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any of their respective agents will have any responsibility for the performance by DTC, Euroclear, Clearstream or their respective Participants or Indirect Participants of their respective obligations under the rules and procedures governing their operations.

 

Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes

 

A Global Note is exchangeable for a Certificated Note if:

 

   

DTC (a) notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the Global Notes or (b) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in each case, a successor depositary is not appointed;

 

   

we, at our option, notify the Trustee in writing that we elect to cause the issuance of Certificated Notes; or

 

   

there has occurred and is continuing a Default with respect to the notes.

 

In addition, beneficial interests in a Global Note may be exchanged for Certificated Notes upon prior written notice given to the Trustee by or on behalf of DTC in accordance with the indenture governing the notes. In all cases, Certificated Notes delivered in exchange for any Global Note or beneficial interests in a Global Note will be registered in the names, and issued in any approved denominations, requested by or on behalf of the depositary (in accordance with its customary procedures).

 

Same Day Settlement and Payment

 

We will make payments in respect of notes represented by Global Notes, including payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the DTC or its nominee. We will make all payments of principal of and premium, if any, and interest on Certificated Notes by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the Holders of the Certificated Notes or, if no account is specified, by mailing a check to each Holder’s registered address. See “Description of the Notes—Principal, Maturity and Interest.” Notes represented by Global Notes are expected to be eligible to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in notes represented by Global Notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Euroclear or Clearstream participant purchasing an interest in a Global Note from a Participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised us that cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a Global Note by or through a Euroclear or Clearstream participant to a Participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

 

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CERTAIN BERMUDA TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

We have obtained an assurance from the Minister of Finance of Bermuda under the Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966 that, in the event that any legislation is enacted in Bermuda imposing any tax computed on profits or income, or computed on any capital asset, gain or appreciation or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, such tax shall not, until March 31, 2035, be applicable to us or to any of our operations or to our shares, debentures or other obligations except insofar as such tax applies to persons ordinarily resident in Bermuda or is payable by us in respect of real property owned or leased by us in Bermuda. The execution, delivery, performance or enforcement of the transactions and related documents contemplated hereby are not subject to ad valorem stamp duty in Bermuda and no registration, documentary, recording, transfer or other similar tax, fee or charge is payable in Bermuda in connection with the execution, delivery, filing, registration or performance of the documents. There is no income or other tax of Bermuda imposed by withholding or otherwise on any payment to be made to or by ourselves pursuant to the transactions contemplated hereby.

 

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UNDERWRITING

 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman, Sachs & Co., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and RBC Capital Markets, LLC are acting as representatives of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions stated in the underwriting agreement dated the date of this prospectus supplement, each underwriter named below has severally agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to that underwriter, the principal amount of notes set forth opposite the underwriter’s name.

 

Underwriter

   Principal Amount
of  Notes
 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

  

BNP Paribas Securities Corp.

  

Credit Agricole Securities (USA) Inc.

  

Deutsche Bank Securities Inc.

  

Goldman, Sachs & Co.

  

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

  

MUFG Securities America Inc.

  

RBC Capital Markets, LLC

  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $     500,000,000  
  

 

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the notes included in this offering are subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and to other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to purchase all the notes if they purchase any of the notes. The offering of the notes by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part.

 

Notes sold by the underwriters to the public will initially be offered at the initial public offering price set forth on the cover of this prospectus supplement. Any notes sold by the underwriters to securities dealers may be sold at a discount from the initial public offering price not to exceed         % per note. Any such securities dealers may resell any notes purchased from the underwriters to certain other brokers or dealers at a discount from the initial public offering price not to exceed         % per note. If all the notes are not sold at the initial offering price, the underwriters may change the offering price and the other selling terms.

 

We have agreed that, from the date of this prospectus until the closing of this offering, we will not, without the prior written consent of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. , offer, sell, or contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, or announce the offering of, any debt securities issued or guaranteed by us. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. in its sole discretion may release any of the securities subject to these lock-up agreements at any time without notice.

 

The following table shows the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay to the underwriters in connection with this offering (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount of the notes).

 

     Paid by Us  

Per note

               

 

We estimate that our total expenses, excluding the underwriting discount, for this offering will be $250,000.

 

In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell notes in the open market. Purchases and sales in the open market may include short sales, purchases to cover short positions and stabilizing purchases.

 

   

Short sales involve secondary market sales by the underwriters of a greater number of notes than they are required to purchase in the offering.

 

   

Covering transactions involve purchases of notes in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions.

 

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Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase notes so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

 

Purchases to cover short positions and stabilizing purchases, as well as other purchases by the underwriters for their own accounts, may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the notes. They may also cause the price of the notes to be higher than the price that would otherwise exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. The underwriters may conduct these transactions in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. If the underwriters commence any of these transactions, they may discontinue them at any time.

 

The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates have in the past engaged, and may in the future engage in transactions with and perform services, including commercial banking, financial advisory and investment banking services, for us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they have received or will receive customary fees and expenses. In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (which may include bank loans and/or credit default swaps) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. In addition, affiliates of certain of the underwriters are lenders, and in some cases agents and/or managers, under our revolving credit facilities. Affiliates of such underwriters may receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to the extent we use net proceeds to repay indebtedness under our revolving credit facilities. If any of the underwriters or their affiliates has a lending relationship with us, certain of those underwriters or their affiliates routinely hedge, and certain other of those underwriters or their affiliates may hedge, their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, these underwriters and their affiliates would hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the notes offered hereby.

 

We have agreed to indemnify the several underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make because of any of those liabilities.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area

 

In relation to each member state of the European Economic Area, no offer of notes which are the subject of the offering has been, or will be made to the public in that Member State, other than under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive:

 

   

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

   

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

   

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

 

provided that no such offer of notes referred to in (a) to (c) above shall result in a requirement for the company or any representative to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

 

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This prospectus supplement has been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Member State will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Directive from the requirement to publish a prospectus for offers of notes. Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in that Member State of notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus supplement may only do so in circumstances in which no obligation arises for the company or any representative to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive in relation to such offer. Neither the company nor any representative has authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes in circumstances in which an obligation arises for the company or any representative to publish a prospectus for such offer.

 

For the purposes of this provision, the expression “an offer of notes to the public” in relation to any notes in any Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the notes, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State, the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (as amended, including by Directive 2010/73/EU) and includes any relevant implementing measure in each Member State. The above selling restriction is in addition to any other selling restrictions set out below.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

 

The underwriters have represented and agreed that:

 

  (a)   they have only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the FSMA) received by them in connection with the issue or sale of the notes in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to us; and

 

  (b)   they have complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by them in relation to the notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in France

 

Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the notes described in this prospectus supplement has been submitted to the clearance procedures of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers or of the competent authority of another member state of the European Economic Area and notified to the Autorité des Marchés Financiers . The notes have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, to the public in France. Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the notes has been or will be:

 

   

released, issued, distributed or caused to be released, issued or distributed to the public in France; or

 

   

used in connection with any offer for subscription or sale of the notes to the public in France.

 

Such offers, sales and distributions will be made in France only:

 

   

to qualified investors ( investisseurs qualifiés ) and/or to a restricted circle of investors ( cercle restreint d’investisseurs ), in each case investing for their own account, all as defined in, and in accordance with, articles L.411-2, D.411-1, D.411-2, D.734-1, D.744-1, D.754-1 and D.764-1 of the French Code monétaire et financier ;

 

   

to investment services providers authorized to engage in portfolio management on behalf of third parties; or

 

   

in a transaction that, in accordance with article L.411-2-II-1°-or-2°-or 3° of the French Code monétaire et financier and article 211-2 of the General Regulations ( Règlement Général ) of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers , does not constitute a public offer ( appel public à l’épargne ).

 

The notes may be resold directly or indirectly, only in compliance with articles L.411-1, L.411-2, L.412-1 and L.621-8 through L.621-8-3 of the French Code monétaire et financier .

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

 

The notes may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong), or (ii) to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong) and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan

 

The notes offered in this prospectus supplement have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan. The notes have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the account of any resident of Japan (including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), except (i) pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law and (ii) in compliance with any other applicable requirements of Japanese law.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore

 

This prospectus supplement has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the notes may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the notes be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”), (ii) to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to compliance with conditions set forth in the SFA.

 

Where the notes are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

   

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

   

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor, shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the notes pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except

 

   

to an institutional investor (for corporations, under Section 274 of the SFA) or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or to any person pursuant to an offer that is made on terms that such shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or such rights and interest in that trust are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction, whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets, and further for corporations, in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA;

 

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where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer; or

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law.

 

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

 

The notes may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the notes must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws. Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor. Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, New York, New York. Certain legal matters as to Bermuda law will be passed upon for us by Conyers Dill & Pearman Limited, Hamilton, Bermuda. Certain legal matters relating to the offering of the notes will be passed upon for the underwriters by Cahill Gordon & Reindel LLP , New York, New York.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Aircastle Limited appearing in Aircastle Limited’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 and the effectiveness of Aircastle Limited’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any materials that we have filed with the SEC at the public reference facilities the SEC maintains at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain further information about the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, information statements and other information regarding us. The SEC’s Web site address is www.sec.gov.

 

The information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and information in this prospectus supplement supersedes, as appropriate, information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, while the information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede, as appropriate, this information. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC (other than the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed). These documents contain important information about us.

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on February 14, 2017;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement, as filed with the SEC on April 8, 2016 (as to those portions incorporated into our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, filed with the SEC on February 11, 2016, only);

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 5, 2017 and February 6, 2017.

 

We also incorporate by reference additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and before the termination of this offering. The additional documents so incorporated include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements (in each case, other than the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed). We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed above or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or certain exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner to whom a copy of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, a copy of these filings, other than an exhibit to these filings unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference into the filing, upon written or oral request and at no cost. Requests should be made by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Aircastle Limited

c/o Aircastle Advisor LLC

300 First Stamford Place, 5th Floor

Stamford, CT 06902

(203) 504-1020

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

AIRCASTLE LIMITED

COMMON SHARES

PREFERENCE SHARES

DEPOSITARY SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

PURCHASE CONTRACTS

PURCHASE UNITS

 

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any such offering, any combination of (i) common shares, (ii) preference shares, (iii) depositary shares representing preference shares, (iv) debt securities, (v) warrants, (vi) subscription rights, (vii) purchase contracts and (viii) purchase units (or its equivalent in foreign or composite currencies) on terms to be determined at the time of offering.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities. We will provide the specific prices and terms of these securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus at the time of the offering. You should read this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement carefully before you make your investment decision.

We may offer and sell these securities through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. The prospectus supplement for each offering will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering and will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the offering and any applicable fees, commissions or discount arrangements.

 

 

This prospectus may not be used to sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the trading symbol “AYR.” Each prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “ Risk Factors ” on page 2 before you make your investment decision.

None of the Securities and Exchange Commission, any state securities commission, the Minister of Finance and the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda or the Bermuda Monetary Authority have approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is May 6, 2015.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     3  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS AND PURCHASE UNITS

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     26  

LEGAL MATTERS

     30  

EXPERTS

     30  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     30  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     31  

Consent under the Bermuda Exchange Control Act 1972 (and its related regulations) has been obtained from the Bermuda Monetary Authority for the issue and transfer of our offered securities to and between persons resident and non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes provided our shares are listed on an appointed stock exchange, which includes the New York Stock Exchange. Pursuant to the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda, there is no requirement to file this prospectus or any prospectus supplement with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda. Neither the Bermuda Monetary Authority nor the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda accepts any responsibility for our financial soundness or for the correctness of any of the statements made or opinions expressed in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell, from time to time, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer to sell our securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement and may provide other offering materials containing specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may add, change or update information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information contained in this prospectus and any information contained in any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. In addition, as described above, we have filed and plan to continue to file documents with the SEC that contain information about us and the business conducted by us. Before you decide to invest in any of our securities, you should read carefully this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement (including all documents incorporated by reference therein), and the information that we file with the SEC.

This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities described in the prospectus we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities offered. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement on Form S-3, including its exhibits. We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), and, therefore, file reports and other information with the SEC. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials about the provisions or contents of any agreement or other document are only summaries. If SEC rules require that any agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, you should refer to that agreement or document for its complete contents.

You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any other offering materials is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of each document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since then.

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified or the context requires otherwise, we use the terms “Aircastle,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” to refer to Aircastle Limited and its subsidiaries, except where it is clear that the term refers only to the parent company. Throughout this prospectus, when we refer to our aircraft, we include aircraft that we have transferred into grantor trusts or similar entities for purposes of financing such assets through securitizations and term financings.

 

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SUMMARY

This is only a summary and may not contain all the information that is important to you. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and any other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Aircastle Limited

We acquire, lease, and sell commercial jet aircraft with large, global operator bases and long useful lives. As of March 31, 2015, our aircraft portfolio consisted of 152 aircraft leased to 54 lessees located in 34 countries. Our aircraft fleet is managed by an experienced team based in the United States, Ireland and Singapore. Typically, our aircraft are subject to net leases whereby the lessee is generally responsible for maintaining the aircraft and paying operational, maintenance and insurance costs arising during the term of the lease. We also may occasionally make investments in other aviation assets, including debt investments secured by commercial jet aircraft.

Our principal executive offices are located at c/o Aircastle Advisor LLC, 300 First Stamford Place, 5th Floor, Stamford, CT 06902. Our telephone number is (203) 504-1020. Our website address is www.aircastle.com. Information on, or accessible through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus and should not be relied upon in connection with making any investment decision with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

You should consider the specific risks described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014, the risk factors described under the caption “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement and any risk factors set forth in our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment decision. Each of the risks described in these documents could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment. See “Where You Can Find More Information” on page 22 of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds of any offering of securities for working capital and other general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment or refinancing of outstanding indebtedness and the financing of future acquisitions. We will have significant discretion in the use of any net proceeds. The net proceeds may be invested temporarily in interest-bearing accounts and short-term interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We may provide additional information on the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the offered securities in an applicable prospectus supplement relating to the offered securities.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth information regarding our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods shown. For purposes of calculating this ratio, (i) earnings consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before provision (benefit) for income taxes and fixed charges and (ii) fixed charges consist of interest expense, which includes amortization of deferred finance charges, and imputed interest on our lease obligations. The interest component of rent was determined based on an estimate of a reasonable interest factor at the inception of the leases.

 

     Years Ended December 31,      Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
     2010      2011      2012      2013      2014      2015  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     1.37x        1.58x        1.18x        1.16x        1.47x        1.75x  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the common shares, preference shares, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts and purchase units that we may offer and sell from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

General

As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized share capital consists of:

 

    250,000,000 common shares, par value $0.01 per share; and

 

    50,000,000 preference shares, par value $0.01 per share.

As of April 30, 2015, there were issued and outstanding 81,181,133 common shares and no issued and outstanding preference shares. All of the currently outstanding common shares on the date of this prospectus are fully paid. Our bye-laws permit us to issue shares that are not fully paid, subject to the right of our board of directors to make calls for unpaid amounts. Pursuant to our bye-laws, subject to any resolution of the shareholders to the contrary, our board of directors is authorized to issue any of our authorized but unissued shares. There are no limitations on the right of non-Bermudians or non-residents of Bermuda to hold or vote our shares.

Set forth below is a summary description of all the material terms of our share capital. This description is qualified in its entirety by reference to our memorandum of association and amended bye-laws.

Common Shares

Holders of common shares have no pre-emptive, redemption, conversion or sinking fund rights. Holders of common shares are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of holders of common shares. Unless a different majority is required by law or by our bye-laws, resolutions to be approved by holders of common shares require approval by a simple majority of votes cast at a meeting at which a quorum is present. Our bye-laws provide that persons standing for election as directors at a duly constituted and quorate annual general meeting are to be elected by our shareholders by a plurality of the votes cast on the resolution. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the issued and outstanding common shares can elect all of the directors standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

 

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In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common shares are entitled to share equally and ratably in our assets, if any, remaining after the payment of all of our debts and liabilities, subject to any liquidation preference on any issued and outstanding preference shares. Our common shares are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “AYR.” Any common shares not fully paid up are subject to calls by our board of directors.

Preference Shares

Pursuant to Bermuda law and our bye-laws, our board of directors by resolution may establish one or more series of preference shares having such number of shares, designations, dividend rates, relative voting rights, conversion or exchange rights, redemption rights, liquidation rights and other relative participation, optional or other powers, preferences and rights, qualifications, limitations or restrictions as may be fixed by the board without any further shareholder approval. The rights with respect to a series of preference shares may be more favorable to the holder(s) thereof than the rights attached to our common shares. It is not possible to state the actual effect of the issuance of any preference shares on the rights of holders of our common shares until our board of directors determines the specific rights attached to such preference share. The effect of issuing preference shares may include, among other things, one or more of the following:

 

    restricting dividends in respect of our common shares;

 

    diluting the voting power of our common shares or providing that holders of preference shares have the right to vote on matters as a class;

 

    impairing the liquidation rights of our common shares; or

 

    delaying or preventing a change of control of Aircastle.

Dividend Rights

Under Bermuda law, a company’s board of directors may declare and pay dividends from time to time unless there are reasonable grounds for believing that the company is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or that the realizable value of its assets would thereby be less than its liabilities. Under our bye-laws, each common share is entitled to dividends if, as and when dividends are declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferred dividend right of the holders of any preference shares. There are no restrictions on our ability to transfer funds (other than funds denominated in Bermuda dollars) in and out of Bermuda or to pay dividends to U.S. residents who are holders of our common shares.

Variation of Rights

If at any time we have more than one class of shares, the rights attaching to any class, unless otherwise provided for by the terms of issue of the relevant class, may be varied either: (i) with the consent in writing of the holders of 50% of the issued shares of that class; or (ii) with the sanction of a resolution passed by a majority of the votes cast at a general meeting of the relevant class of shareholders at which a quorum consisting of at least two persons holding or representing two-thirds of the issued shares of the relevant class is present. Our bye-laws specify that the creation or issue of shares ranking equally with existing shares will not, unless expressly provided by the terms of issue of existing shares, vary the rights attached to existing shares. In addition, the creation or issuance of preference shares ranking prior to common shares will not be deemed to vary the rights attached to common shares or, subject to the terms of any other series of preference shares, to vary the rights attached to any other series of preference shares.

Election and Removal of Directors

Our bye-laws provide that our board shall consist of not less than three and not more than twelve directors, as the board may from time to time determine. Our board of directors currently consists of twelve directors. Our

 

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board is divided into three classes that are, as nearly as possible, of equal size. Each class of directors is elected for a three year term of office, but the terms are staggered so that the term of only one class of directors expires at each annual general meeting. The current terms of the Class I, Class II and Class III directors will expire in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively.

Any shareholder wishing to propose for election as a director someone who is not an existing director or is not proposed by our board must give notice of the intention to propose the person for election. Where a person is to be proposed for election as a director at an annual general meeting by a shareholder, that notice must be given not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days before the anniversary of the last annual general meeting prior to the giving of the notice or, in the event the annual general meeting is called for a date that is not 25 days before or after such anniversary, the notice must be given not later than ten days following the earlier of the date on which notice of the annual general meeting was mailed to shareholders or the date on which public disclosure of the date of the annual general meeting was made. Where a director is to be elected at a special general meeting, that notice must be given not later than 10 days following the earlier of the date on which notice of the special general meeting was mailed to shareholders or the date on which public disclosure of the date of the special general meeting was made. Such proposal must be made in accordance with the procedures set forth in our bye-laws.

A director may be removed with or without cause by a resolution of our shareholders, including the affirmative votes of at least 80.0% of all votes attaching to all shares in issue entitling the holder to vote on such resolution, provided that notice of the shareholders meeting convened to remove the director is given to the director. The notice must contain a statement of the intention to remove the director and must be served on the director not less than 14 days before the meeting. The director is entitled to attend the meeting and be heard on the motion for his removal.

Acquisition of Common Shares by Aircastle and Option to Require Sale of Shares

Our bye-laws provide that we have the option, but not the obligation, to require a shareholder that is not a U.S. citizen or a qualified resident of the U.S. or of the other contracting state of the applicable tax treaty with the U.S. (as determined for purposes of the relevant provision of the limitation on benefits article of such treaty) owning more than 5% of our issued and outstanding common shares to sell its common shares for their fair market value to us, to other shareholders or to third parties if we determine that failure to exercise our option would result in adverse tax consequences to us or any of our subsidiaries. Our right to require a shareholder to sell its shares will be limited to the purchase of a number of shares that our directors, in the reasonable exercise of their discretion, determine is necessary to permit avoidance of those adverse tax consequences.

Shareholders Agreements

Marubeni Shareholder Agreement

In connection with the sale of common shares to Marubeni Corporation (“Marubeni”), on June 6, 2013, Aircastle and Marubeni entered into a Shareholder Agreement, which became effective upon the completion of the issuance, referred to as the closing (the “Shareholder Agreement”). The Shareholder Agreement provides certain rights to Marubeni with respect to the designation of directors for election to our Board. Based on the current ownership of our common shares by Marubeni and the current size of our board of directors, Marubeni is entitled to designate three directors for election to our board of directors in accordance with the Shareholder Agreement. The Shareholder Agreement also includes certain standstill restrictions, including restrictions on direct or indirect acquisitions of voting securities of the Company that would result in Marubeni and its affiliates collectively holding (i) more than 21% of the voting power of the Company prior to the third anniversary of the closing or (ii) more than 27.5% of the voting power of the Company prior to the tenth anniversary of the closing. These standstill restrictions contain customary exceptions and will terminate upon, among other things, the acquisition by a third party of the beneficial ownership of more than 30% of the voting power of the Company. In

 

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addition, the Shareholder Agreement includes certain voting restrictions that apply if Marubeni and its affiliates collectively own more than 21% of the voting power of the Company. The Shareholder Agreement also contains restrictions on Marubeni’s ability to transfer common shares for three years following the closing of the issuance, subject to certain exceptions, and contains customary registration rights provisions relating to resales of common shares by Marubeni.

On February 18, 2015, the Company, Marubeni and Marubeni Aviation Holding Coöperatief U.A, a Netherlands coöperatief and a wholly owned subsidiary of Marubeni (“MHC”), entered into an amendment and restatement of the Shareholder Agreement, which (1) modified the terms of the Shareholder Agreement to immediately permit acquisitions by Marubeni and its affiliates of voting securities of the Company in the secondary market pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan that would result in Marubeni and its affiliates collectively holding more than 21.0% but no more than 27.5% of the voting power of the Company and (2) extended the term of the standstill provision of the Shareholder Agreement by 18 months to January 2025.

As discussed further below, the Shareholder Agreement provides certain rights to Marubeni with respect to the designation of directors for election to our Board as well as registration rights for certain of our securities owned by them.

Designation and Election of Directors

Pursuant to the Shareholder Agreement, subject to the terms and conditions expressed therein, Marubeni and MHC will have the right, for so long as they beneficially own (i) at least 5% but less than 15% of the voting power of the Company, to designate one director for appointment to the Board; (ii) at least 15% but less than 25% of the voting power of the Company, to designate two directors for appointment to the Board; provided that the number of directors Marubeni and MHC have the right to designate shall represent at least 20% of the number of directors serving on the Board; and (iii) 25% or more of the voting power of the Company, to designate three directors for appointment to the Board, with the initial appointment to be made prior to August 14, 2013. On August 2, 2013, Marubeni designated Messrs. Konto and Toya to the Board in accordance with the Shareholder Agreement. On May 22, 2014, Marubeni designated Mr. Kakinoki to the Board in accordance with the Shareholder Agreement. If at any time the number of our directors entitled to be designated by Marubeni pursuant to the Shareholder Agreement shall decrease, within 20 days thereafter, Marubeni and MHC shall cause a sufficient number of its designated directors to resign and any vacancies created by these resignations shall be filled by a majority vote of the Board.

Registration Rights

Marubeni Shareholder Agreement

Demand Rights. At any time after the expiration of certain transfer restrictions set forth in the Shareholder Agreement, we have granted to Marubeni and MHC, for so long as they, collectively and beneficially own an amount of our common shares (whether owned or subsequently acquired) at least equal to 5% or more of the Company’s voting securities, “demand” registration rights that allow them to request that we register under the Securities Act an amount equal to or greater than 3% of our common shares then issued and outstanding. Marubeni and MHC are collectively entitled to an aggregate of six demand registrations. We may for up to an aggregate of ninety (90) days during any period of twelve (12) consecutive months refuse a request for demand registration if, in our reasonable judgment, if the Board determines in good faith and in its reasonable judgment that the filing or effectiveness of the registration statement relating to such demand registration would cause the disclosure of material, non-public information that the Company has a bona fide business purpose for preserving as confidential.

Piggyback Rights. For so long as they beneficially own an amount of our common shares at least equal to 1% of our common shares issued and outstanding as of any measurement date, at any time after the expiration of

 

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certain transfer restrictions set forth in the Shareholder Agreement, Marubeni and MHC also have “piggyback” registration rights that allow them to include the common shares that they own in any public offering of equity securities initiated by us (other than those public offerings pursuant to registration statements on Forms S-4 or S-8 or any successor forms thereto) or by any of our other shareholders that have registration rights. The “piggyback” registration rights of these shareholders are subject to proportional cutbacks based on the manner of the offering and the identity of the party initiating such offering.

Indemnification; Expenses. We have agreed to indemnify Marubeni, MHC and each of their respective officers, directors, employees, managers, partners and agents and each person who controls (within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act and Section 20 of the Exchange Act) Marubeni or MHC against any losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses caused by, resulting from or relating to any untrue statement or omission of material fact in any registration statement, prospectus or preliminary prospectus or any amendment thereof or supplement thereto pursuant to which they sell our common shares, unless such liability arose from any information furnished in writing to the Company by Marubeni or MHC expressly for use therein or by Marubeni’s or MHC’s failure to deliver a copy of a current prospectus or any amendments or supplements thereto, and each of Marubeni and MHC has agreed to indemnify us against all losses caused by their misstatements or omissions. We will pay all expenses incidental to our performance under the Shareholder Agreement, and Marubeni and MHC will pay their respective portions of all underwriting discounts, commissions, the fees and expenses of counsel to Marubeni and MHC and transfer taxes relating to the sale of their common shares under the Shareholder Agreement.

Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan Board Registration Rights Letter Agreement

In connection with the Company’s repurchase of 2,500,002 of the Company’s common shares at a price of $11.40 per share from certain affiliates of Fortress Investment Group LLC, on August 10, 2012, the Company entered into a registration rights letter agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan Board (“Teachers”). Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, subject to the terms, conditions and limitations expressed therein, the Company agreed to provide to Teachers certain demand registration rights relating to Teachers’ ownership of the Company’s common shares. The Company will generally pay all expenses relating to a demand registration thereunder, except for any underwriter discounts and commissions.

The Company and Teachers have each agreed to indemnify the other against various liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. In addition, the Registration Rights Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and agreements of the Company and Teachers.

Demand Rights . We have granted to Teachers “demand” registration rights that allow them to make one written request for registration under the Securities Act of any common shares owned by Teachers, in an amount equal to or greater than 3% of our common shares issued and outstanding the date such demand is made. The number of common shares that may be registered pursuant to a demand by Teachers shall not exceed 10% of the total number of Common Shares issued and outstanding on the date such a demand is made.

Shelf Registration . Teachers may by written notice to the Company require the Company to prepare and file a prospectus supplement or such supplemental materials to the Company’s existing registration statement on Form S-3, or, if the Company is unable to effect a resale pursuant to an existing registration statement, and subject to the availability to the Company of a registration statement on Form S-3, to file and use commercially reasonable efforts to cause to be declared or become effective, as soon as practicable, a new Form S-3 providing for an offering to be made on a continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 of the Securities Act, in an amount that equals or is greater than 3% of the total number of common shares issued and outstanding on the date such a demand is made.

Indemnification; Expenses . The Company and Teachers have each agreed to indemnify the other party and its affiliates and their respective officers, directors, employees, managers, shareholders, members and partners

 

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against, and to pay and reimburse such party for any losses, claims, damages, liabilities, joint or several, or actions or proceedings to which such party may become subject under the Securities Act or otherwise, insofar as they arise out of or are based upon any untrue or alleged untrue statement of material fact contained in any registration statement, any prospectus, any other offering materials or any amendment thereof or supplement thereto, or any omission or alleged omission of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading (but, in the case of Teachers, only to the extent that such untrue statement or omission is made in such registration statement, prospectus, offering materials or any amendment or supplement thereto in reliance upon and in conformity with written information prepared and furnished to the Company by the Shareholder expressly for use therein), or in the case of the Company, any violation by the Company of any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act or any state securities laws applicable to the Company in connection with a demand registration made by Teachers as described above.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The following is a summary of certain provisions of our bye-laws that may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, deter or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a shareholder might consider to be in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by shareholders.

The authorized but unissued common shares and our preference shares will be available for future issuance by the board of directors, subject to any resolutions of the shareholders. These additional shares may be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, corporate acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued common shares and preference shares could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control over us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, amalgamation or otherwise.

Certain provisions of our bye-laws may make a change in control of Aircastle more difficult to effect. Our bye-laws provide for a staggered board of directors consisting of three classes of directors. Each class of directors are chosen for three-year terms upon the expiration of their current terms and each year one class of our directors is elected for a three-year term of office by our shareholders. The terms of the directors in the first, second and third classes will expire in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. We believe that classification of our board of directors will help to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our board of directors. The classified board could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time consuming and difficult. At least two annual meetings of shareholders, instead of one, will generally be required to effect a change in a majority of our board of directors. Thus, the classified board could increase the likelihood that incumbent directors will retain their positions. The staggered terms of directors may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or an attempt to change control of us, even though a tender offer or change in control might be in the best interest of our shareholders. Our bye-laws provide that persons standing for election as directors at a duly constituted and quorate annual general meeting are elected by our shareholders by a plurality of the votes cast on the resolution. In addition, our bye-laws provide that directors may be removed with or without cause by a resolution of our shareholders, including the affirmative votes of at least 80.0% of all votes attaching to all shares in issue entitling the holder to vote on such resolution. Our bye-laws also give us the option, but not the obligation, to require a shareholder that is not a U.S. citizen or a qualified resident of the U.S. or of the other contracting state of the applicable tax treaty with the U.S. (as determined for purposes of the relevant provision of the limitation on benefits article of such treaty) owning more than 5% of our issued and outstanding common shares to sell the shareholder’s common shares to us, to another shareholder or to third parties at fair market value if we determine that failure to exercise such option would result in adverse tax consequences to us or any of our subsidiaries.

Pursuant to our bye-laws, our preference shares may be issued from time to time, and the board of directors is authorized to determine the rights, preferences, powers, qualifications, limitations and restrictions. See “— Preference Shares.”

 

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Certain Provisions of Bermuda Law

We have been designated by the Bermuda Monetary Authority as a non-resident for Bermuda exchange control purposes. This designation allows us to engage in transactions in currencies other than the Bermuda dollar, and there are no restrictions on our ability to transfer funds (other than funds denominated in Bermuda dollars) in and out of Bermuda or to pay dividends to United States residents who are holders of our common shares.

Consent under the Bermuda Exchange Control Act 1972 (and its related regulations) has been obtained from the Bermuda Monetary Authority for the issue and transfer of our offered securities to and between persons resident and non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes provided our shares are listed on an appointed stock exchange, which includes the New York Stock Exchange. Pursuant to the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda, there is no requirement to file this prospectus or any prospectus supplement with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda. Neither the Bermuda Monetary Authority nor the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda accepts any responsibility for our financial soundness or for the correctness of any of the statements made or opinions expressed in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement.

In accordance with Bermuda law, share certificates are only issued in the names of companies, partnerships or individuals. In the case of a shareholder acting in a special capacity (for example as a trustee), certificates may, at the request of the shareholder, record the capacity in which the shareholder is acting. Notwithstanding such recording of any special capacity, we are not bound to investigate or see to the execution of any such trust. We will take no notice of any trust applicable to any of our shares, whether or not we have been notified of such trust.

Differences between the Governing Corporate Law of Bermuda and Delaware Law

You should be aware that the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda (the “Companies Act”), which applies to us, differs in certain material respects from laws generally applicable to Delaware corporations and their shareholders. In order to highlight these differences, set forth below is a summary of material provisions of the Companies Act (including modifications adopted pursuant to our bye-laws) and Bermuda common law applicable to us which differ in certain respects from provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

Duties of Directors . The Companies Act authorizes the directors of a company, subject to its bye-laws, to exercise all powers of the company except those that are required by the Companies Act or the company’s bye-laws to be exercised by the shareholders of the company. Our bye-laws provide that our business is to be managed and conducted by our board of directors. At common law, members of a board of directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company to act in good faith in their dealings with or on behalf of the company and exercise their powers and fulfill the duties of their office honestly. This duty includes the following essential elements:

 

    a duty to act in good faith in the best interests of the company;

 

    a duty not to make a personal profit from opportunities that arise from the office of director;

 

    a duty to avoid conflicts of interest; and

 

    a duty to exercise powers for the purpose for which such powers were intended.

The Companies Act imposes a duty on directors and officers of a Bermuda company:

 

    to act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company; and

 

    to exercise the care, diligence and skill that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances.

 

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Our directors and officers generally owe fiduciary duties to the company, and not to the company’s individual shareholders. Our shareholders may not have a direct cause of action against our directors.

Under Delaware law, the business and affairs of a corporation are managed by or under the direction of its board of directors. In exercising their powers, directors are charged with a fiduciary duty of care and a fiduciary duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires that directors act in an informed and deliberative manner and inform themselves, prior to making a business decision, of all material information reasonably available to them. The duty of care extends to director oversight and investigation of the conduct of corporate employees. The duty of loyalty may be summarized as the duty to act in good faith, not out of self-interest, and in a manner which the director reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the shareholders.

Delaware law provides that a party challenging the propriety of a decision of a board of directors bears the burden of rebutting the applicability of the presumptions afforded to directors by the “business judgment rule.” The business judgment rule is a presumption that in making a business decision, directors acted on an informed basis and that the action taken was in the best interests of the company and its shareholders. Accordingly, unless the presumption is rebutted, a board’s decision will be upheld unless there can be no rational business purpose for the action or the action constitutes corporate waste. If the presumption is not rebutted, the business judgment rule protects the directors and their decisions, and their business judgments will not be second guessed. Where, however, the presumption is rebutted, the directors generally bear the burden of demonstrating the entire fairness of the relevant transaction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Delaware courts may subject certain conduct of directors to enhanced scrutiny, such as in respect of defensive actions taken in response to a threat to corporate control or the approval of a transaction resulting in a sale of control of the corporation.

Interested Directors . Bermuda law and our bye-laws provide that if a director has an interest in a material transaction or proposed material transaction with us or any of our subsidiaries or has a material interest in any person that is a party to such a transaction, the director must disclose the nature of that interest at the first opportunity either at a meeting of directors or in writing to the directors. Our bye-laws provide that, after a director has made such a declaration of interest, he is allowed to be counted for purposes of determining whether a quorum is present and to vote on a transaction in which he has an interest, unless disqualified from doing so by the chairman of the relevant board meeting. Under Delaware law, such transaction would not be voidable if (i) the material facts as to such interested director’s relationship or interests are disclosed or are known to the board of directors and the board in good faith authorizes the transaction by the affirmative vote of a majority of the disinterested directors, (ii) such material facts are disclosed or are known to the shareholders entitled to vote on such transaction and the transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the majority of shares entitled to vote thereon or (iii) the transaction is fair as to the company as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified. Under Delaware law, such interested director could be held liable for a transaction in which such director derived an improper personal benefit.

Voting Rights and Quorum Requirements . Under Bermuda law, the voting rights of our shareholders are regulated by our bye-laws and, in certain circumstances, the Companies Act. Under our bye-laws, at any general meeting, two or more persons present in person at the start of the meeting and representing in person or by proxy more than 50% of all votes attaching to all shares in issue entitling the holder to vote at the meeting, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at that meeting. Generally, except as otherwise provided in the bye-laws, or the Companies Act, any action or resolution requiring approval of the shareholders may be passed by a simple majority of votes cast except for the election of directors which requires only a plurality of the votes cast.

Any individual who is a shareholder of the company and who is present at a meeting may vote in person, as may any corporate shareholder that is represented by a duly authorized representative at a meeting of shareholders. Our bye-laws also permit attendance at general meetings by proxy, provided the instrument appointing the proxy is in the form specified in the bye-laws or such other form as the board may determine. Under our bye-laws, each holder of common shares is entitled to one vote per common share held.

 

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Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the company’s certificate of incorporation, each shareholder is entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by the shareholder. Delaware law provides that unless otherwise provided in a company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, constitutes a quorum at a meeting of shareholders. In matters other than the election of directors, with the exception of certain extraordinary transactions with special voting requirements, and unless otherwise provided in a company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, the affirmative vote of a majority of shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote at a meeting in which a quorum is present is required for shareholder action, and the affirmative vote of a plurality of shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote at a meeting in which a quorum is present is required for the election of directors.

Dividends . Under Bermuda law, a company may not declare or pay dividends if there are reasonable grounds for believing that: (i) the company is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or (ii) that the realizable value of its assets would thereby be less than its liabilities. Under our bye-laws, each common share is entitled to dividends if, as and when dividends are declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferred dividend right of the holders of any preference shares.

Under Delaware law, subject to any restrictions contained in the company’s certificate of incorporation, a company may pay dividends out of surplus or, if there is no surplus, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and for the preceding fiscal year. Delaware law also provides that dividends may not be paid out of net profits if, after the payment of the dividend, capital is less than the capital represented by the outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets.

Amalgamations, Mergers and Similar Arrangements . The amalgamation or merger of a Bermuda company with another company or corporation (other than certain affiliated companies) requires the amalgamation or merger agreement to be approved by the company’s board of directors and by its shareholders. Unless the company’s bye-laws provide otherwise, the approval of 75% of the shareholders voting at such meeting is required to approve the amalgamation or merger agreement, and the quorum for such meeting must be two persons holding or representing more than one-third of the issued shares of the company. Our bye-laws provide that a merger or an amalgamation (other than with certain affiliated companies) that has been approved by the board must only be approved by a majority of the votes cast at a general meeting of the shareholders at which the quorum shall be two or more persons present in person at the start of the meeting and representing in person or by proxy more than 50% of all votes attaching to all shares in issue entitling the holder to vote at the meeting. Any amalgamation not approved by our board must be approved by a shareholders resolution, including the affirmative vote of at least 66% of all votes attaching to all shares in issue entitling the holder to vote on such matter.

Under Bermuda law, in the event of an amalgamation or merger of a Bermuda company with another company or corporation, a shareholder of the Bermuda company who did not vote in favor of the amalgamation or merger and is not satisfied that fair value has been offered for such shareholder’s shares may, within one month of notice of the shareholders meeting, apply to the Supreme Court of Bermuda to appraise the fair value of those shares.

Under Delaware law, with certain exceptions, a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all the assets of a corporation must be approved by the board of directors and a majority of the issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote thereon. Under Delaware law, a shareholder of a corporation participating in certain major corporate transactions may, under certain circumstances, be entitled to appraisal rights pursuant to which such shareholder may receive cash in the amount of the fair value of the shares held by such shareholder (as determined by a court) in lieu of the consideration such shareholder would otherwise receive in the transaction. Among other limitations, such appraisal right is not available to shareholders if the stock received in the transaction is listed on a national securities exchange.

 

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Takeovers . Under Bermuda law, an acquiring party is generally able to acquire compulsorily the common shares of minority holders in the following ways:

 

    By a procedure under the Companies Act known as a “scheme of arrangement”. A scheme of arrangement could be effected by obtaining the agreement of the company and of holders of common shares, representing in the aggregate a majority in number and at least 75% in value of the common shareholders present and voting at a court ordered meeting held to consider the scheme of arrangement. The scheme of arrangement must then be sanctioned by the Bermuda Supreme Court. If a scheme of arrangement receives all necessary agreements and sanctions, upon the filing of the court order with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda, all holders of common shares could be compelled to sell their shares under the terms of the scheme or arrangement.

 

    If the acquiring party is a company by acquiring pursuant to a tender offer 90% of the shares or class of shares not already owned by, or by a nominee for, the acquiring party (the offeror), or any of its subsidiaries. If an offeror has, within four months after the making of an offer for all the shares or class of shares not owned by, or by a nominee for, the offeror, or any of its subsidiaries, obtained the approval of the holders of 90% or more of all the shares to which the offer relates, the offeror may, at any time within two months beginning with the date on which the approval was obtained, require by notice any nontendering shareholder to transfer its shares on the same terms as the original offer. In those circumstances, nontendering shareholders will be compelled to sell their shares unless the Supreme Court of Bermuda (on application made within a one-month period from the date of the offeror’s notice of its intention to acquire such shares) orders otherwise.

 

    Where the acquiring party or parties holds not less than 95% of the shares or a class of shares of a company, such holder(s) may, pursuant to a notice given to the remaining shareholders or class of shareholders, acquire the shares of such remaining shareholders or class of shareholders. When this notice is given, the acquiring party is entitled and bound to acquire the shares of the remaining shareholders on the terms set out in the notice, unless a remaining shareholder, within one month of receiving such notice, applies to the Supreme Court of Bermuda for an appraisal of the value of their shares. This provision only applies where the acquiring party offers the same terms to all holders of shares whose shares are being acquired.

Delaware law provides that a parent corporation, by resolution of its board of directors and without any shareholder vote, may merge with any subsidiary of which it owns at least 90% of each class of its capital stock. Upon any such merger, dissenting shareholders of the subsidiary are entitled to certain appraisal rights.

Share Repurchases . The Companies Act permits a company to purchase its own shares if authorized to do so by its memorandum of association or bye-laws. Our bye-laws allow us to purchase our own shares for cancellation on such terms as our board of directors may authorize, without obtaining prior shareholder approval. Our ability to repurchase our common shares may be limited in the future by the special veto rights, if any, of the holders of our preference shares.

Delaware law permits a corporation to redeem its own shares on such terms as its board of directors may authorize, without obtaining prior shareholder approval and so long as the capital of the corporation is not impaired and such redemption does not impair the capital of the corporation.

Shareholders’ Suits . Class actions and derivative actions are generally not available to shareholders under Bermuda law. The Bermuda courts, however, would ordinarily be expected to permit a shareholder to commence an action in the name of a company to remedy a wrong to the company where the act complained of is alleged to be beyond the corporate power of the company or illegal, or would result in the violation of the company’s memorandum of association or bye-laws. Furthermore, consideration would be given by a Bermuda court to acts that are alleged to constitute a fraud against the minority shareholders or, for instance, where an act requires the approval of a greater percentage of the company’s shareholders than that which actually approved it.

 

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When the affairs of a company are being conducted in a manner which is oppressive or prejudicial to the interests of some part of the shareholders, one or more shareholders may apply to the Supreme Court of Bermuda, which may make such order as it sees fit, including an order regulating the conduct of the company’s affairs in the future or ordering the purchase of the shares of any shareholders by other shareholders or by the company.

Our bye-laws contain a provision by virtue of which our shareholders waive any claim or right of action that they have, both individually and on our behalf, against any director or officer in relation to any action or failure to take action by such director or officer, except in respect of any fraud or dishonesty of such director or officer. We have been advised by the SEC that in their opinion, the operation of this provision as a waiver of the right to sue for violations of federal securities laws would likely be unenforceable in U.S. courts.

Class actions and derivative actions generally are available to shareholders under Delaware law for, among other things, breach of fiduciary duty, corporate waste and actions not taken in accordance with applicable law. In such actions, the court generally has discretion to permit the winning party to recover attorneys’ fees incurred in connection with such action.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers . Section 98 of the Companies Act provides generally that a Bermuda company may indemnify its directors, officers and auditors against any liability which by virtue of any rule of law would otherwise be imposed on them in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, except in cases where such liability arises from fraud or dishonesty of which such director, officer or auditor may be guilty in relation to the company. Section 98 of the Companies Act provides that a Bermuda company may indemnify its directors, officers and auditors against any liability incurred by them in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, in which judgment is awarded in their favor or in which they are acquitted or granted relief by the Supreme Court of Bermuda pursuant to section 281 of the Companies Act. Section 98 of the Companies Act further provides that a company may advance moneys to an officer or auditor for the costs, charges and expenses incurred by the officer or auditor in defending any civil or criminal proceedings against them, on condition that the officer or auditor shall repay the advance if any allegation of fraud or dishonesty is proved against them.

We have adopted provisions in our bye-laws that provide that we shall indemnify our officers and directors in respect of their actions and omissions, except in respect of their fraud or dishonesty. Our bye-laws provide that the shareholders waive all claims or rights of action that they might have, individually or in right of the company, against any of the company’s directors or officers for any act or failure to act in the performance of such director’s or officer’s duties, except in respect of any fraud or dishonesty of such director or officer. Section 98A of the Companies Act permits us to purchase and maintain insurance for the benefit of any officer or director in respect of any loss or liability attaching to him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, whether or not we may otherwise indemnify such officer or director. We have purchased and maintain a directors’ and officers’ liability policy for such a purpose.

Under Delaware law, a corporation may include in its certificate of incorporation a provision that, subject to the limitations described below, eliminates or limits director liability to the corporation or its shareholders for monetary damages for breaches of their fiduciary duty of care. Under Delaware law, a director’s liability cannot be eliminated or limited for (i) breaches of the duty of loyalty, (ii) acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) the payment of unlawful dividends or expenditure of funds for unlawful stock purchases or redemptions, or (iv) transactions from which such director derived an improper personal benefit.

Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation against expenses (including attorney’s fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative proceeding if they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the

 

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corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful, except that in any action brought by or in the right of the corporation, such indemnification may be made only for expenses (not judgments, fines or amounts paid in settlement) and may not be made even for expenses if the officer, director or other person is adjudged liable to the corporation (unless otherwise determined by the court). In addition, under Delaware law, to the extent that a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any proceeding referred to above, he or she must be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such proceeding. Furthermore, under Delaware law, a corporation is permitted to maintain directors’ and officers’ insurance.

Inspection of Corporate Records . Members of the general public have the right to inspect our public documents available at the office of the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda and our registered office in Bermuda, which will include our memorandum of association (including its objects and powers) and certain alterations to our memorandum of association. Our shareholders have the additional right to inspect our bye-laws, minutes of general meetings and audited financial statements, which must be presented to the annual general meeting of shareholders. The register of members of a company is also open to inspection by shareholders and by members of the general public without charge. The register of members and the register of directors and officers is required to be open for inspection for not less than two hours in any business day (subject to the ability of a company to close the register of members for not more than 30 days in a year). A company is required to maintain its share register in Bermuda but may, subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, establish a branch register outside of Bermuda. A company is required to keep at its registered office a register of directors and officers. Bermuda law does not, however, provide a general right for shareholders to inspect or obtain copies of any other corporate records. Delaware law provides that any shareholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose of the demand, has the right during the corporation’s usual hours for business to inspect or make copies or extracts of a corporation’s stock ledger and its other books and records for any purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a shareholder. Under Delaware law, in connection with any meeting of shareholders, the complete list of the shareholders entitled to vote at such meeting must be open to the examination of any shareholder for any purpose germane to such meeting for a period of at least 10 days prior to a shareholder meeting and at all times during the shareholder meeting.

Shareholder Proposals . Under Bermuda law, shareholder(s) may, as set forth below and at their own expense (unless the company otherwise resolves), require the company to: (i) give notice to all shareholders entitled to receive notice of the annual general meeting of any resolution that the shareholder(s) may properly move at the next annual general meeting; and/or (ii) circulate to all shareholders entitled to receive notice of any general meeting a statement in respect of any matter referred to in any proposed resolution or any business to be conducted at such general meeting. The number of shareholders necessary for such a requisition is either: (i) any number of shareholders representing not less than 5% of the total voting rights of all shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting to which the requisition relates; or (ii) not less than 100 shareholders. Delaware law does not include a provision restricting the manner in which nominations for directors may be made by shareholders or the manner in which business may be brought before a meeting, although restrictions may be included in a Delaware company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws.

Calling of Special Shareholders Meetings . Under Aircastle’s bye-laws, a special general meeting may be called by the President, the chairman of the board or the board of directors. The board of directors must call a special general meeting upon the request of Fortress or any “significant shareholder” or “affiliate” of such shareholder (both as defined in the bye-laws) so long as the significant shareholder and its affiliates collectively hold shares carrying at least 10% of the votes attaching to all issued and outstanding shares at the time of